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63 Cards in this Set

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What are three structures early plants used to prevent water loss?
cuticle, stomata, and guard cells
How does the cuticle prevent water loss?
It is a waxy layer that retains water.
How does the stomata help prevent water loss?
They let water in.
How do the guard cells help prevent water loss?
They open and close the stomata.
What are 4 structure that early plants used for reproduction?
flowers, seeds, pollen, and spores
How do flowers help reproduction?
Flowers attracted pollinators to help spread the seeds.
How do seeds help reproduction?
They allowed the sperm to move from place to place without water.
How do spores help reproduction?
Spores allowed sperm to move around without water and seeds.
How does pollen help reproduction?
Pollen allows sperm to move to another egg without water.
What are 3 structures that early plants used for absorbing nutrients?
Micorrihizae, rhizoids, and roots
How did mycorrihizae help in absorbing nutrients?
They are a relationship between the roots and fungi, which allowed the fungi to abosrb nutrients for the plant.
How did roots help in absorbing nutrients?
They abosrobed nutrients from the ground.
How did rhizoids help in absorbing nutrients?
Rhizoids were early roots.
What are 3 differences between moss and club moss?
(1) Moss needs water for reproductiong and Club Moss doesn't, therefore club moss can live further away from water.
(2) Club Moss can grow bigger because it has a vascular system and moss doesn't.
(3) Club Moss has a vascular system and Moss doesn't.
What are 3 differences between angiosperms and gymnosperms?
(1) Angiosperms have flowers to attract pollinators.
(2) Angiosperms bear fruit.
(3) Angiosperms use animals to spread its seeds.
What are the differences between white, whole wheat/flour and bulgur?
White is made of only the endosperm of seeds, whole wheat is made of the endosperm and the husk/germ/bran, and bulgur is made only of the husk/germ/bran and has lots of fiber.
What are 4 differences between monocots and dicots?
(1) Monocots have 1 first leaf and dicots have 2 first leaves.
(2) Monocot flowers are in multiples of 3, and dicot flowers are in multiples of 2,4, or 5.
(3) Monocots have parallel veins in their leaves and dicots have webbed veins.
(4) Monocots showed up before dicots.
What are four advantages of seeds?
(1) protection
(2) nourishment
(3) plant dispersal
(4) delayed growth
What were the first plants?
Liverworts
What were the first vascular plants?
Whiskferns
What are rhizoids?
They first showed up in liverworts and are early roots that anchored the gametophyte to the area where they grew.
What are conducting cells?
They first showed up in mosses and transport materials.
When did rhizoids and mycorrihizae first show up?
in liverworts
When did stomata/cuticle first show up?
in hornworts
when did conducting cells show up?
mosses
When did spores first show up?
in whiskferns
When did roots and leaves first show up?
in club mosses, horsetails, and ferns
When did seeds and pollen first show up?
in the gymnosperms
When did flowers first show up?
in the angiosperms
What are some characteristics of nonvascular plants?
-have rhizoids instead of roots
-must obtain water by osmosis
-usually the first plants to inhabit a new environment
What are some characteristics of vascular plants without seeds?
-contain vascular tissue
-ferns, horsetails, club mosses, whiskferns
What are some characteristics of vascular plants with seeds but without flowers?
-gymnosperms (conifers, cycads, gingko, gnetophytes)
-have vascular tissue
-anscestors grew very large
-include the oldest living trees on Earth
-seeds develope in a cone or on fleshy structures attached to branches
What are some characteristics of vascular plants with seeds and flowers?
-angiosperms
-seeds are surrounded by fruit
-provide land animals with almost all the food they need to survive
-have vascular tissue
-seeds developed in a cone or fleshy structure attached to branches
What characteristic do all kinds of plants share?
They all formed fossil fuels.
What is liverworts' only characteristic?
-sperm swims to egg
What are the only plants with the dominant generation of gametophytes?
the nonvascular plants: liverworts, hornworts and moss
What do liverworts lack?
They lack the cuticle, stomata and conducting cells.
What do hornworts lack?
They lack vascular tissue and conducting cells.
What are root crops?
They are crops that are grown underground. They are mostly tubers (cassava, potatoes)
What is the importance of potatoes and cassava?
Cassava feeds almost all of Africa and potatoes are an important food staple.
What are cereals?
Cereals are grasses that are grown for food. They are rich in carbohydrates, protein, vitamins and fiber.
What is a grain?
A grain is a single seed from a cereal with a large endosperm.
What are the three most important sereal grasses?
wheat, corn, and rice
What is paper made of?
cellulose
What are some uses for plants?
wood, medicine, lumber, clothing
What are the vegetative parts of plants?
They are any non-reproductive part of the plant (broccoli)
What are the fruits of plants?
They are any part of the plant that contains seeds (apple, cucumber, tomato)
What are legumes?
They are protein-rich plants that produce pods. (peanuts, alfalfa, soybeans, peas)
What is bran?
the dry papery husk that covers the grain.
What is corn?
Corn is the world's chief food for livestock animals. It is the most widely cultivated crop in the U.S.
What is rice?
Rice is low in protein, but high in carbs. White rice is made of just the endosperm, and brown rice is made of the endosperm and the bran. It is often added to processed food to increase their nutritional value.
What is moss?
Moss is a nonvascular plant with only the cuticle, stomata, and conducting cells.
What are liverworts?
They were the first plants and have no stoma, cuticle or conducting cells with rhizoids.
What are horntails?
Horntails are nonvascular plants with cuticle and stomata.
What are club mosses?
They are vascular plants with no seeds. They have vascular tissue and their sperm swims to the egg
What are whiskferns?
They are seedless vascular plants that have no roots and leaves.
What are ferns?
They are seedless vascular plants with roots, leaves, and stems.
What are horsetails?
They are seedless vascular plants with no stems but with roots and leaves. Their leaves are segmented.
What are gymnosperms?
They are some of the oldest living plants on earth. They have vascular tissue and have seeds. They develope seeds in a cone, and not in fruit.
What are angiosperms?
They are the most successful plants to date. They are vascular plants with seeds and flowers. There are two types, monocots and dicots.
What are dicots?
Dicots are angiosperms that have webbed veins in their leaves. Their flowers bloom in multiples of 2,4, or 5. They came later than the monocots. They also have 2 first leaves.
What are monocots?
They are angiosperms that have one first leaf. Their flowers bloom in multiples of 3. They have parallel veins in their leaves. They came before the dicots.
What are cones?
They are the reproductive parts of gymnosperms, the seed producing parts.