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38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is an atom?
the smallest unit of matter
what is a molecule?
a substance made of two or more different atoms
what is an element?
a substance made of two or more same atoms
what is a hydrogen bond?
a weak chemical attraction between polar molecules
polar
a covalent compound that does not share electrons equally
nonpolar
a covalent compound that shares electrons equally with no charged ends
cohesion
attraction between the same substance
adhesion
attraction between different substances
acids
form hydrogen ions when dissolved in water
bases
reduce hydrogen ions when dissolved in water
what are the building blocks of carbohydrates?
monosaccarides
what are the building blocks of protein?
amino acids
what are the building blocks of nucleic acids?
nucleotides
what are the building blocks of lipids?
fatty acids and glycerol
what are the four major organic compounds?
carbohydrates, lipids, protein, and nucleic acids
what determines the shape of a protein?
polarity and if it's charged
enzyme
protein that assists in chemical reactions inside the cell
cellulose
polysaccharide that forms cell walls
organic compounds
compounds containing carbon
phospholipid
a lipid made of a phosphate group and two fatty acids
macromolecule
large molecule made up simple structures
saturated
fats in which fatty acids are surrounded by hydrogen atoms; found in animals
glycogen
important polysaccharide that stores sugar in animals
nonsaturated
fats in which fatty acids are not surrounded by hydrogen atoms and form double bonds; found in plants
monosaccharides
simple sugars; glucose
carbohydrates
main energy source for living things
disaccharides
double sugars; formed through dehydration synthesis; sucrose
polysaccharides
chains of monosaccharides; starch, glycogen, cellulose
lipids
no soluble in water
fats
made of fatty acids and glycerol; storage
phospholipids
like fats, but with a phosphate group; used in cell membranes
steroids
testosterone, estrogen, cholesterol
waxes
beeswax, earwax
DNA
double helix; has the directions to make protein
RNA
reads the DNA and carries it out
ATP
nucleotide with two phosphate groups; food energy temporarily stored
What are the four types of protein in the cell?
channel (transport), marker, enzyme, and receptor
what are some functions of protein?
structural, antibodies, and functional