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208 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the elements that make up 97.6% of human body weight, as well as all living matter?
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Sulfur
What are the different types of chemical bonds?
Covalent Bonds, Ionic Bonds, and Hydrogen Bonds . Strongest to Weakest.
Ionic Bond
Give or Take electrons from other molecules and become ions
covalent bonds
Shares electrons to fill its valence shells
Hydrogen Bonds
Molecules connect because of partial charges
Water molecules undergo what type of bonding
hydrogen bonding, meaning water molecules are polar
What are some characteristics of water?
Supports all organisms, the molecules are polar, water is cohesive, it moderates temperature, has high specific heat, has evaporative cooling, it expands and is less dense when it freezes, as well as it is an excellent solvent.
What is hydrophobic vs. hydrophilic
Water fearing vs. Water loving, Water fearing repels water and does not dissolve easiy in water, nor does it absorb water. Water loving does all of these.
What does organic chemistry involve?
Carbon- carbon can form 4 covalent bonds, it has 6 protons and 6 neutrons. It has flexibility in bonding
What are isomers?
have the same chemical formula but a different arrangement of atoms
what are the different types of isomers?
structural- differ in covalent bonding partners
Geometric- differ in arrangement about a double bond
Enantiomers- differ in spatial arrangement around an asymmetric carbon...mirror images
What are the Functional Groups?
Hydroxl, Carbonyl, Carboxyl, Amino, Sulfhydryl, Phosphate
What are the important biological molecules?
ATP, Lipids, Saccharides, Nucleic Acids, Proteins
What is defined as the capacity to cause change.
The three-dimensional space where an electron is found 90 percent of the time is what?
The orbital
The making and breaking of chemical bonds, leading to changes in the composition of matter are called ?
Chemical Reactions
What makes water different from most other liquids?
It is more structured, making many of its properties possible, such as cohesion, surface tension and adhesion
a measure of the total amount of kinetic energy due to molecular motion in a body of matter.
measures the intensity of heat due to the average kinetic energy of the molecules.
The what of a substance is defined as the amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for 1 g of that substance to change its temperature by 1 degree C. The specific heat of water is 1 calorie per gram per degree Celsius.
Specific Heat
the primary energy-transferring molecule in the cell
OPO32- or OPO3H2
Explain why table salt is a compound, while the oxygen we breath is not.
Table salt is a compound because it is made up of two elements, Na and Cl, while the oxygen we breathe is only made up of one.
How many electrons does fluorine have? How many electron shells? Name the orbitals that are occupied. How many unpaired electrons does fluorine have?
Fluorine has 9 electrons. This means it has two electron shells. The first shell is full and the second has 7 electrons which is 1 less than being full. This means it has one unpaired electron. It fills the orbitals: 1s, 2s, 2p—fills 3 orbitals
Explain what holds together the atoms in a crystal of magnesium chloride (MgCl2)
Mg and Cl have opposite charges therefore are held together by ionic bonds.
Describe how properties of water contribute to the upward movement of water in a tree.
Hydrogen bonds hold neighboring water molecules together; this cohesion helps the molecules resist the downward pull of gravity. Adhesion between water molecules and the walls of water-conduction cells also counters the downward pull of gravity. As water evaporates from the leaves, the chain of water molecules in water-conducting cells moves upward.
Explain the popular adage, “it’s not the heat, it’s the humidity”
High humidity hampers cooling by suppressing the evaporation of sweat.
The reactivity of an atom arises from?
the existence of unpaired electrons in the valence shell.
Many mammals control their body temperature by sweating. Which property of water is most directly responsible for the ability to sweat to lower body temperature?
the absorption of heat by the breaking of hydrogen bonds.
For two bodies of matter in contact, heat always flow from
The body of higher temperature to the one of lower temperature
What change usually occurs in ATP when it releases energy?
The ATP molecule loses a phosphate and be comes ADP
What does the term “amino acid” signify about the structure of such a molecule?
It has both an amino group and a carboxyl group which makes it a carboxyl acid
These Include the four main classes of large biological molecules, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. On the molecular scale these molecules are huge.
Carbohydrates, proteins and nucleic acids are all chain-like molecules called these. They are a molecule consisting of many similar or identical building blocks linked by covalent bonds. (Like of train).
The building blocks that make up a polymer (like a single train car).
monomers are connected by this reaction which two molecules are covalently bonded to each other through loss of a water molecule. When a bond forms between two monomers, each monomer contributes part of the water molecule that is lost, one provides a hydroxyl group (OH) and the other provides a hydrogen (-H). The cell must expend energy to carry these out.
specialized proteins that speed up chemical reactions in a cell.
a process that is essentially the reverse of the dehydration reaction and disassembles monomers from a polymer.
include both sugars and the polymers of sugars.
The simplest carbohydrate (the monomer of a carbohydrate polymer). generally have molecular formulas that are some multiple of CH2O. These are major nutrients for cells.
The carbohydrates that are macromolecules, polymers with a few hundred to a few thousand monosaccharide joined by glycosidic linkages.
consist of two monosaccharide joined by a GLYCOSIDIC LINKAGE
a covalent bond formed between two monosaccharide by a dehydration reaction.
a polymer of glucose that animals store
organisms build strong materials from structural polysaccharides such as this, which is a major component of the tough walls that enclose plant cells.
the one class of large biological molecules that do not consist of polymers.They are grouped together because they have little or no affinity for water. They consist mainly of hydrocarbons.
Examples of Lipids
Fats phospholipids and steroids are examples of lipids.
What is constructed from two kinds of smaller molecules: glycerol and fatty acids.
has a long carbon skeleton. Two types of these one that is saturated with hydrogen and the other has double carbon bonds with less hydrogen.
This consist of three fatty acids linked to one glycerol molecules by an ester linkage.
These are similar to a fat, but has only two fatty acids attached to glycerol rather than three.
lipids characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four fused rings.
an example of a steroid- it is a common component of animal cell membranes and is also the precursor from which other steroids are synthesized.
Proteins account for more than How much of the dry mass of most cells
the most important type of protein. These proteins regulate metabolism by acting as CATALYSTS
These chemical agents that selectively speed up chemicals reactions in a cell without being consumed by the reaction.
the polymers of amino acids. A PROTEIN consists of one or more these folded and coiled into specific conformations.
organic molecules possessing both carboxyl and amino groups.
Amino Acids
when two amino acids are postioned so that the carboxyl group of one is adjacent to the amino group of the other, an enzyme can caused them to join by catalyzing a dehydration reaction, with the removal of a water molecule. The resulting bond is what?
Peptide Bonds
The what of a protein is its unique sequence of amino acids.
Most proteins have segments of their polypeptide chains repeatedly coiled or folded in patterns that contribute to the proteins overall conformation. These coils and folds, collectively referred to as what? They are result of hydrogen bonds between the repeating constituents of the polypeptide backbone.
This is a secondary structure, that is a delicate coil held together by hydrogen bonding between every fourth amino acid.
A type of secondary structure. In this structure two or more regions of the polypeptide chain lying side by side are connected by hydrogen bonds between parts of the two parallel polypeptide backbones.
The three dimensional shape of a polypeptide
as a polypeptide folds into its functional conformation, amino acids with hydrophobic (non-polar) side chains usually end up in clusters at the core of the protein out of contact with water. What is this interaction called?
These form where two cysteine monomers, amino acids with sulfhydryl groups on their side chains, are brought close together by the folding of the proteins.
This is if the pH, alt concentrations, temperature, or other aspects of its environment are altered, the protein may unravel and lose its native conformation.
Genes consist of DNA which is a polymer belonging to the class of compounds known as what?
What are the two types of nucleic acids and their functions?
DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID (DNA) and RIBONUCLEIC ACID (RNA)these molecules enable living organisms to reproduce their complex components from one generation to the next.
Nucleic acids are macromolecules that exist as polymers called what?
Polynucleotide's monomers ae called what? And what are they composed of?
• Each polynucleotide consists of monomers called NUCLEOTIDES. A nucleotide is composed of three parts: a nitrogenous base, a pentose (five carbon sugar) and a phosphate group.
What are the different kinds of microscopes?
Subcellular structure are called what? (like the different organs of a cell.)
What is the study of cell structure called?
What process takes cells apart and separate the major organelles from one another?
Cell Fractionation
The basic structural and functional unit of every organism is one of two types of cells
prokaryotic or eukaryotic.
Only organisms of the domains Bacteria and Archaea consist of _______ Cells. Protists, fungi, animals and plants are all composed of __________ cells.
prokaryotic and eukaryotic
What are some differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells?
Eukaryotic- Generally Larger, more complex, some organelles covered (bound) by membranes, includes protist, plants, fungi and animals.
Prokaryotic- smaller, less complex, organelles not covered by membranes, inclues bacteria and archaea.
What are the organelles in a eukaryotic cell?
cytoplasmic membrane, cell wall (only in some), appendages, cytoplasm, cytoskeleton, nucleus, endomembrane system, Ribosomes, Mitochondria and chloroplasts.
Describe the make up of a biological membrane.
they are phospholipid bilayers- which are two layers of lipids, hydrophobic side facing each other on the inside
Describe the nucleus and nucleoid
Eukaryotic nucleus is membrane bound, it has the DNA, RNA and proteins that are surrounded by nuclear membrane. The DNA of a prokaryote is nake and located in the nucleoid
Describe the make up and function of MItochondria.
They are membrane bound (inner and outer), involved in making ATP (the power house of the cell) Has its own DNA, and has ribosomes
Describe chloroplasts.
membrane bound (inner and outer), are involved in photosynthesis, has its own DNA and ribosomes
What are the similarites of Mitochondria, Chloroplasts and prokayotic cells
size, cenclosed by membranes, contain DNA and ribosomes.
What is the Endomembrane System?
It is an extension or continuation of the nuclear membrane -ER.
What are the components of the Endomembrane System?
Nuclear membrane, Endoplasmc reticulum (ER), Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, vesicles, digestive enzymes and ribosmes.
What are vesicles?
they shuttle things from one place in the cell to another.
What are digestive enzymes?
They are proteins that help carry out chemical reactions that break down other things (?)
Ribosomes are broken into two parts, what are these called?
The large and small sub-units
What is the function of a Ribosome?
RNA --> Polypeptide, they link amino acids together to form peptide bonds.
What is the cytoskeleton?
it consists of threadlike proteins, and aids in the movement of cells as a whole and the organelles inside of the cell.
What are cilia and flagella?
They help move the cell as a unit, Eukaryotic appendages. Long appendage is a flagellum, the short are cilia. the appendages beat to move and they have a distinctive protein structure.
Describe Cell Walls
they are found only in some eukaryotic cells, support and give the cell structure, they are made up of polysaccharides.
What must all things going into or out of a cell do.
They must cross at least one cell membrane.
Describe the movements of cell membranes
the phospholipids move laterally in a membrane, but flipping from one side of the bilayer to the other is rare
What else is in a membrane?
Proteins- which are embedded in the bilayer or on the surface.
Describe Proteins-
they are made of amino acids, soem are nonpolar and some are polar and others are elecrically charged. They function in different ways and are found in membranes.
What is the function of cholesterol in a cell?
It can help moderate fluidity when temperatures change in cell membranes.
What is passive transport?
Diffusion through a bilayer. Things move in and out of cells without the cell using energy. Passive Transport can also take place through transport proteins (protein channels)
What can cross a phospholipid bilayer?
nonpolar covalent bonds, small. Polar molecules or larger moelcules cannot.
What is an aquaporin?
A protein channel that allows water to get through the membrane.
What limits passive transport?
Concentration Gradients, and electochemical gradients, always go from higher to lower concentration.
What is active transport?
It requires energy- many use ATP as an energy source. These are protein pumps.
What is cotransport?
one molecule hitcing a ride through a protein pump when another molecule "opens the gates"
The subunit assemply of a protein- which is one or more polypeptide.
Quaternary Structure
What are the different ends of a protein?
A polypeptide has one amino and one carboxyl end.
What are the functions of proteins?
Enzymatic, Structural, storage, Receptors, transport.
The sequences of proteins are what?
What is the general flow of information when refering to Proteins, DNA and RNA?
DNA transcribes onto RNA and then given to the protein.
What is bulk transport?
It is the way cells take "big bites", these include endocytosis- englufing
and exocytosis- expelling
Only eukaryotic cells can do this as long as they dont have cell walls
What is the first step of metabolism?
Entering the cell
What is catabolism?
Catobolism breaks down substrates, which include ATP, "Electron Donors" and "precursor metabolits"
What are the electron donors that work with metabolism?
NADH <-> NAD, NADPH <-> NADP and FADH2 <-> FAD
What is molecular cycling
the cycle of regenerating energy for the cells, which work from ATP -> losing evergy for cellular work -> ADP + P1 -> Energy gained from catbolism -> back to ATP
What are the three principle catabolic pathways?
Glycolysis, Citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. (See and study book diagrams)
What is the inputs and outputs of glycolysis?
Input: glucose Output: 2 pyruvate + 2 H2O and 2 ATP and 2 NADH + 2H+
Where does glycolysis take place?
in the cytosol
Describe the general process of cellular respiration.
Glycolysisi takes each glucose molecule and breaks it down into two molecules of pyruvate, the pyruvate enters the mitochondrion, where the citric acid cycle oxidzes it to carbon dioxide, NADh and a similar coenzyme FADH2 transfer electrons derived from glucose to electron transpor chains, which are built into the inner mitochondrial membrane. During oxidative phosphorylation, electron transport chains convert the chemical energy to form used for ATP syntheiss in the process called chemiosmosis.
What are the inputs and outputs of the citric acid cycle?
Input: pyruvate-which supplies the three carbon chain.
Output: 2CO2, 3NADH, 1 FADH2, and ! ATP
What is substrate-level phosphorylation?
some ATP is made by direct enzymatic transfer of a phosphate group from an organic substrate to ADP
What is Oxidative Phosphorylation?
It is "aerobic respiration" which means it requres 02. Oxygen is the ulitimate electron acceptor. An organic phospate is added to ADP in this process.
Where does the ATP come from?
Glycolysis --> 2 per glucose
Citric Acid --> 2
Per pyruvate --> 1
Oxidative phosphorylation- about 32 per glucose
What is anaerobic?
with out oxygen, they are the organisms that live where there is none available
What do you really need for glycolysis?
Glucose, ADP and phosphate to regenerate ATP, adn NAD
What is the use of fermentaion
it provides a mechanism by which some cells can oxidze organic fuel and generate ATP without the use of oxygen.
How does fermentation work?
oxidation refers to the loss of ecetrons to any electron acceptor, it doesnt have to be oxygen. Glycolysis still coccurs. The NAD is recycled productively from NADH by the transfer of electons to the elecron transport chain.
What does breaking down glucoses produce?
ATP (enegry), "precursor metabolites" (carbon), this pathway is used by chemoheterotrophs.
What is the source of carbon and evergy for a chemoheterotroph?
Catabolism and molecules
What is the source of carbon and energy in a chemoautotroph?
C02 and Molecules
What is the source of carbon and energy in a photoheterotroph?
Catabolism and Light
What is the sourch of carbon and energy in a photoautotroph?
CO2 and Light
What are the significances of autotrophs?
They support the ecosystem by providing food.
What are the two processes of photosynthesis?
LIght reactions and the calvin cycle
Where do the different reactions of photosynthesis occur?
in the chlorplasts
What can perform photosynthesis?
Plants (eukaryotic), Protists (some) (eukaryotic) and Prokaryotes (some)
What is an exergonic reaction?
a reactions that proceeds with a net relaese of free energy
What is an endergonic reaction?
a reaction that absorbs free energy from its surroundings.
What are the three main knds or work that a cell perfroms?
Mechanical- such as the beating of cilia, Transport- such as the pumping of substances across membranes
Chemical- the pusing of endergonic reactions
What is energy coupling?
the use of exergonic process to drive an endergonic one
What is ATP
Adenosine triphosphate, the main source of energy for the cell, it contains the sugar ribose, with the nitrogenous base adenine and a chain of three phosphate groups bonded to it
What occurs to make ATP into ADP?
When the terminal phospate bond is broken, a molecule of inorganic phosphate leaves the ATP which becomes adenosine diphosphate or ADP, this reaction is exergonic
How does the energy from ATP transfer?
With the help of specific enzymes, the cell is able to couple the energy of ATP hydrolysis directly to endergonic processes by transferring a phosphate group from ATP to some other molecules, such as the reactant. The recipient of the phosphate group is then said to be phosphorylated.
What is the process that happens to ADP to return it back to ATP
the ADP is phosphorylated to replenish it back to ATP
What is a catabolic pathway?
a metabolic pathway that releases stored energy by breaking down complex molecules.
What is the general process of producing energy in the cell?
Organic compouds + Oxygen -> Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy

More specifically:

C6H12O6 (glucose) + 6 O2 --> 6CO2 + 6 H2O + energy (ATP + heat)
In a redox reaction which process adds and which prosses looses electrons?
A loss of electrons is oxidation and an addition of electrons is reduction
what is cellular respiration?
the oxidation of glucose and other molecules. by oxidizing glucose, respiration liberates stored energy from glucose and makes it available for ATP synthesis
In cellular respiration what is the path of the hydrogen atoms?
The hydrogen atoms are not transferred directly to oxygen, but instead are usually passed first to a coenzyme called NAD+. NAD+ has its charge neutralized with the addition of a hydrogen and becomes NADH
What is the electron transport chain?
respiration uses this to break the fall of electons to oxygen into sever energy-releasing stemps instead of one explosive reaction. Oxygen pulls electons down the chain in an energy-yielding tumble analogous to gravity pulling objects down.
What is the path of the electons in cellular respiration?
food -> NADH -> electron transport chain -> oxygen
What is oxidative phosphorylation?
the production of ATP using energy dervied from the redox reactions of an elctron transport chain.
What is the substrate-level phosphorylation?
the small amount of ATP formed during teh reactions of glycolysis and the citric acid cycle
What is acetyl CoA?
Pyruvate enters the citric acid cycle and is first covnerted into this compound.
How does the electron transport chain work?
each component of the chain becomes reduced when it accepts electrons from it "uphill" neighbor which has a lower affinity for electrons. It then returns to its oxidized form as it passes elctrons to its "downhill" more electronegative neighbor.
What is ATP synthase?
the enzyme that actually makes ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate. It uses the energy of an existing ion gradient to power ATP synthesis
What is chemiosmosis?
an energy coupling mechanism that uses energy stored in teh form of a H+ gradient across a membrane the drive cellular work such as the synthesis of ATP. It is the flow of H+ across a membrane.
What is the proton-motive force?
The H+ gradient that results is referred to as a proton-motive force, emphasizing the capacity of the gradient to perform the work.
What is the energy flow during respiration?
glucose -> NADH -> electron transfer chian -> proton motive force -> ATP
What are two types of fermentation?
alcohol and lactic acid
What are facultative anaerobes?
they are organisms including yeast and many bacteria that can make enough ATP to survive using either fermentation or respiration
What are other forms of food that a cell can use, besides glucose, to perform catbolism?
fats, proteins, sucrose, other disaccharides, starch and polysaccharides.
What is photosynthesis?
the chloroplast of plants capture sun light and convert it to chemical energy stored in sugar and other organic molecules.
What are autotrophs?
"self-feeders" they sustain themselves without eating anything derived from other organisms. They are considered producers.
What are heterotrphs?
they obtain their organic material by the seocond major mode of nutrition. they live on compounds froduced by other organisms. They are consumers.
What makes the plant green?
chlorophyll- the green pigment located within the chloroplasts
Where are chloroplast found?
they are found mainly in the cells of the mesophyll- the tissue interior of teh leaf.
What are the stomata, stroma and thylakoids?
Stomata- carbon dioxide enters teh leaf, and oxygen exits by the way of these microscopic pores
Stroma- an envelope of two membranes enclose the stroma which is the dense fluid within the chloroplasts
Thylakoids- an elborate system of interconnected membranous sacs. It segregates teh sroma from another compartment, the interior of teh thylakoids.
What is the simplified chemical reaction that takes place in photosynthesis?
CO2 + H2O --> [CH2O] + o2

The actual equation:
6 CO2+ 12 H2O + light energy --> C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6 H2O
What are light reactions?
The light reactions are teh steps of photosynthesis that convert solar energy to chemical energy. Light abosrbed by chlorophyll drives a transfer of electrons and hydrogen from water to an acceptor called NADP+. The light reactions use solar pwer to reduce NADP+ to NADPH by adding a pair of electrons along with a hydrogen nucleus, or H+. The light reactiosn also generate ATP using chemiosmosis to power the addition of a phosphate group to ADP, a process called photophosphorylation.
What is carbon fixation?
the initial incorporation of carbon into organic compounds.
Why do we see green as the color of plants?
The chlorophyll abosorbs violet-blue, and red light while transmitting and relflecting green light.
What are the three pigments of chloroplasts?
Chlorophyll a, Chlorophyll b and Carotenoids
How does a photosystem harvest light?
When aphoton strikes a pigemnt moelcule in a light-harvesting complex the energy is passed from one molecule to molecule until it reaches the reaction center. At the reaction center, an excited electrons from one of the special chlorophyll a molecules is captured by the primary elctron acceptor.
What is a photosystem?
is composed of a reaction center surounded by a number of light-harvesting complexes
What are light harvesting complexes?
they each consist of pigment molecules bound to particular proteins. The number and variety of pigment molecules enable a photosystem to harvest light over a larger surface and a larger portion of the spectrum than any single pigment moelcule alone could.
What is the reaction center within light reactions?
a protein complex that inclues two special chlorophyll a molecules and a moleucle called the primary electron acceptor. This is the first step of the light reactions.
Write the formula for a monosaccharide that has three carbons
What does a denatured protein no longer function normally?
The function of each protein is a consequence of its specific shape, which is lost when a protein becomes denatured
Differentiate between secondary and tertiary structure by describing the parts of the polypeptide chain that participate in the bonds that hold together each level of the structure.
Secondary structure involves hydrogen bonds between atoms of the polypeptide backbone. Tertiary structure involves bonding b/w atoms of teh R groups of the amino acid subunits
A genetic mutation can change a proteins primary structure, how can this destroy the proteins function?
The amino acid sequence affects the shape of the protein and the function of a protein depends on its shape.
What role do the ribosomes play in carrying out the genetic instructions?
Ribosomes in the cytoplasm translate the genetic messages, carried from the DNA in the nucleus by mRNA, into a polypeptide chain
How do transport vesicles serve to integrate the endomembrane system?
Transport vesicles move membranes and substances they enclose between other components of teh endomembrane system.
Describe at least two common charactersitcs of chloroplast and mitochondria.
Both organelles are involved in energy transformation, mitochondria in cellular repiration and chloroplast in photosyntheisis. they are both enclosed by two or more separate membranes.
Explain the characteristics of mitochondria and chloroplasts that place them in a separate category from organelles in the endomembrane system.
Mitochondria and chloroplasts contain DNA, which encodes some of their proteins. they are not connected physically or via transport vesicles to organelles of teh endomembrane system.
Two molecules that can cross a lipid bilayer without help from membrane proteins are O2 and CO2. What properties allow this?
small nonpolar covalent bonds
As a cell grows, its plasma membrane expands. does this process involve endocytosis or exocytosis.
exocytosis. When a transport vesicle fuses with the plasma membrane, the vesicle membrane becomes part of the plasma membrane.
In most cases, how does ATP transfer energy from exergonic to endergonic processes in the cell?
ATP transfers energy to endergonic processes by phosphorylating other molecules
What cellular processes produce the carbon dioxide you exhale?
Co2 is removed from pyruvate, which is produced in glycolysis, and Co2 is produced by the citric acid cycle
What effect would an absence of O2 have on oxidative phosphorylation?
Oxidative phosphorylation would stop entirely, resulting in no ATP production. Without oxygen to "pull" electrons down the electron transport chain, H+ would not be pumped into the mitochondrion's intermembrane space and chemiosmosis would not occur.
Consider the NADH formed during glycolysis. What is the final acceptor for its electons during fermentation? what is teh final acceptor for its electrons during respiration.
A derivative of pyruvate- either acetaldehyde during alcohol fermentation or pyruvate itself during lactic acid fermentation; oxygen
A glucose fed yeast cell is moved form an aerobic environment to an anaerobic one. For the cell to continue generating ATP at the same rate, how would its rate of glucose consuption need to change?
The cell would need to consume glucose at a rate about 19 times the consumption rate in the aerobic environment. (2 ATP are generated by fermentation per molecule of glucose versus up to 38 by cellular respiration)
What will happen in a muscle cell that has used up its supply of oxygen and ATP?
AMP will accumulate, stimulating phosphorfructokinase, which increasees the rate of glycolysis. Since oxygen is not present in the cell will convert pyruvate to lactate in lactic acid fermentation, providing a sypply of ATP.
Describe how the two stages of photosynthesis are dependent on each other.
The Calvin cycle depends on teh NADPH and ATP that the light reactions generate, and the light reactions depend on the NADP+ and ADP and the inorganic phosphate that the calvin cycle generates.
To synthesize one glucose molecule, the Calvin cycles uses ___ molescules of CO2, ____ molecules or ATP and ___ molescules of NADPH
6, 18, 12
Why doesnt a prokaryotic cell have a cytoskeleton?
Cytoplasmic streaming is not boserved in prokaryotes.
What type of cell would probably provide the best opportunity to study lysosomes?
phagocytic white blood cells
What path do the electrons take in during light reactions?
Noncyclic Electron Flow or some times the cyclic elcecron flow.
What is teh general description of the light reactions?
The light reactions use solar power to generate ATP and NADPH, which provide chemical energy and reducing power, respecitively, to the sugar-making reactions of teh Calvin cycle.
What are the three phases of teh Calvin Cycle?
Carbon Fixation, reduction and regeneration of the CO2 acceptor (RuBP)
What is carbon fixation?
CO2 molecules enter one at a time, and attatch to a fivecarbon sugar named RuBP. The product is a six-carbon intermediate so unstable that it immediately spits in hald, forming two molecules of 3-phosphoglycerate
What is Reduction Stage of the Calvin Cycle?
Each 3 phosphoglycerate recieves an additional phosphate group from ATP. One G3P exits the cycle to be used by the plant cell, but the other five molecules must be recycled to regenerate thre three molecules of RuBP
What is The Regeneration of teh CO2 acceptor (RuBP)
In a complex series of reactions, the carbon skeletons of five molecules of G3P are rearragned by the last steps of the Calvin cycle into three molecules of RuBP. To accomplish this the cycle spends three moremolecules of ATP. The RuBP is now prepared to recieve Co2 again and the cycle continues.
Describe the general overview of photosynthesis
The light reactions capture solar energy and use it to make ATP and transfer electons from water to NADP+. The Calvin cycles uses the ATP and NADPH to produce sugar from carbon dixide. The evergy that enters the chloroplasts as sunlight becomes stored as chemical energy in organic compounds.