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28 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
matter
anything that takes up space and has mass
element
any substance that cannot be broken down to any other substance
compound
a chemical combination, in a fixed ratio, of two or more elements
trace element
an element indispensable for life but required in extremely minute amounts
atom
the smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of an element
atomic nucleus
the dense core at the center of the atom which contains protons and neutrons
dalton
the atomic mass unit; a measure of mass for atoms and subatomic particles
atomic number
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom, unique for each element and designated by a subscript to the left of the symbol
mass number
the sum of protons plus neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
atomic weight
the total atomic mass, which is the mass in grams of one mole of the atom
isotope
one of several atomic forms of an element each containing a different number of neutrons, and thus differing in atomic mass
radioactive isotope
an isotope, an atomic form of a chemical element, that is unstable; the nucleus decays spontaneously, giving off detectable particles and energy
energy
the ability to do work
potential energy
the energy that matter stores because of its position or location
energy levels; electon shells
the different states of potential energy for electrons in an atom
orbital
the three-dimensional space where an electron is found 90% of the time
valence electron
the outermost electrons of an atom
valence shell
the outermost energy shell of an atom
covalent bond
the sharing of a pair of valence electrons by two atoms
electronegativity
the tendency for an atom to pull electrons toward itself
nonpolar covalent bond
a type of covalent bond in which electrons are shared equally between two atoms of similar electronegativity
polar covalent bond
a type of vocalent bond between atoms that differ in electronegativity. the shared electrons are pulled closer to the more electronegative atom, making it slightly negative and the other atom slightly positive
ion
an atom that has gained or lost electrons, thus acquiring a charge
cation
an ion with a positive charge, produced by the loss of one or more electrons
anion
a negatively charged ion
ionic bond
a chemical bond resulting from the attraction between oppositely charged ions
hydrogen bond
a type of weak chemical bond formed when the slightly positive hydrogen atom of a polar covalent bond in one molecule is attracted to the slightly negative atom of a polar covalent bond
cal equilibrium
the point at which the reactions offset one another exactly