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25 Cards in this Set

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True-breeding line(age)
Constituted similar pure traits over generations
Inheritance theory 19th century
"Blending" of fluids from both parents.
Alleles
Alt. forms of a gene
ex: height-> tall, short
Law of segregation
B4 sexual reproduction occurs, the 2 alleles carried by an individual parent must become segregated,
Locus
Designated the location of a specific gene on the chromosome.
Monohybrid Cross
Inheritance of 2 different alleles of a single locus (single trait)
Homozygous
Two alleles carried (AA) for this locus are identical.
"true breedin line of ___insert phenotype____.
Heterozygous
Two alleles carried (Aa) for this locus are different.
Genotype
of an organism is described using homozygous and heterozygous.Refers to the genetic constitution or genetic makeup.
Test cross
mating between (a) individual that is homozygous recessive and (b)another individual whose genotype is unsure.
Dihybrid Cross
Different alleles at two loci. Mating with 2 traits being tracked. Pairs of alleles on NONHOMOLOGOUS chromosomes
Principle of independent assortment.
Members of any gene pair segregate from one another independently of the members of the other gene pairs.
Drosphilia experiment results
(1) Genes are arranged in a linear order on each chromosome. (2) Independent assrtment doesn't apply is 2 loci lie close together in the same pair of homologous chromosomes.
Linked genes
Because locis might happen to be close to each other, they might become linked- they tend to be inheritd together.
Recombination
Any process that leads to new gene combinations.
Crossing over in genetics
facilitates the recombination of linked genes. The farther apart genes are on a chromosome, the more likely cross-over will occur b/t them.
Sex-linked genes
Genes located on the X chromosome,ex: blood clotting & color perception.
Male: X chromosome
In males, every allele present on the x chromosome is expressed.
Hemizygous
A male has only 1 copy of each X-linked gene.
Incomplete dominance
When the heterozygotehas a phenotype intermediate b/t those of its two parents. Genotypic and phenotypic ratios are identical.(red + white=pink)
Codominance
Instances in which both traits are expressed (red & white hairs)
Plieotrophy
Ability of a single gene to have mulitple effects. (genetic diseases)
Epistasis
common type of gene interaction in which the presence of certain alleles of one locus and express its own phenotype instead.
Polygenic inheritance
Mulitple independent pairs of genes have similar and additive effects on the same character.
all
finished