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140 Cards in this Set

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Metabolism
The sum of all chemical reactions that occur in the body.

____________ can be be divided into catabolic and anabolic reactions.
Catabolic Reactions
Break down large chemicals and release energy.
Anabolic Reactions
Build up large chemicals and require energy.
Ingestion
The acquisition of food and other raw materials.
Digestion
Process of converting food into a usable soluble form so that it can pass through membranes in the digestive tract and enter the body.
Absorption
Passage of nutrient molecules through the lining of the digestive tract into the body via diffusion or active transport.
Transport
Circulation of essential compounds required to nourish the tissues, and the removal of waste products from the tissues.
Assimilation
The building up of new tissues from digested food materials.
Respiration
The consumption of oxygen by the body. Cells use oxygen to convert glucose into ATP, a ready source of energy for cellular activities.
Excretion
The removal of waste products produced metabolic processes like respiration and assimilation.
Synthesis
The creation of complex molecules from simple ones (anabolism),
Regulation
The control of physiological activities. The body's metabolism functions to maintain its internal environment in a changing external environment.
Irritability
Ability to respond to a stimulus and is part of regulation.
Growth
Increase in size due to synthesis of new materials.
Photosynthesis
The process by which plants convert CO2 and H2O into carbohydrates.

Sunlight is harnessed by chlorophyll to drive this reaction.
What are all living things composed of?
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Sulfur, Phosphorus. Traces of Magnesium, iodine, iron, calcium.
Protoplasm
The living substance within a cell. Seperate from the non-living parts.
H2O
Water
CO2
Carbon Dioxide
C6H12O6
Glucose
Two divisions of chemical compounds
Inorganic and Organic
Inorganic Compounds
Compounds that do not include the element Carbon including salts and HCl
Organic Compounds
Compounds made by livings systems and contain carbon.

Including carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.
Ratio of Carbon:Hydrogen:Oxygen in carbohydrates
C:H:O
1:2:1
What are carbohydrates used for?
Storage forms of energy and structural molecules.
What stores energy in in animals?
Glucose and Glycogen
What stores energy in plants?
Starch
Monosaccharides
Single sugar subunits

Glucose or Fructose
D-Fructose
CH2OH
|
|=O
HO--|--H
H--|--OH
H--|--OH
|
CH2OH
D-Glucose
CHO
|
H--|--OH
HO--|--H
H--|--OH
H--|--OH
|
CH2OH
D-Galactose
CHO
|
H--|--OH
HO--|--H
HO--|--H
H--|--OH
|
CH2OH
D-Mannose
CHO
|
HO--|--H
HO--|--H
H--|--OH
H--|--OH
|
CH2OH
Disaccharide
Two monosaccharide subunits joined by dehydration synthesis
Dehydration synthesis
1-4' addition of two monosaccharides. Loss of OH and H results in loss of H2O
Polysaccharides
Polymers or chains of repeating monosaccharide subunits.

1-4' addition.

Glycogen and starch are ________ and are insoluble in water.
Are polysaccharides insoluble in water.
Yes, they are insoluble in water.
Hydrolysis
Adding water, large polymers can be broken down into smaller subunits.
Dehydration
Polysaccharides are formed by removing water.
What are lipids composed of?
C,H,O. Just like carbohydrates.

Three fatty acid molecules bonded to a single glycerol backbone.
What is the ratio of atoms in lipids?
H:O ratio is much larger than 2:1
Why are fatty acids hydrophobic?
Long carbon chains.
Why are fatty acids acidic?
Carboxylic acid group.
Do lipids form polymers?
NO, lipids do not form polymers.
What are lipids used for?
Chief means of food storage in animals.

Release more energy per gram weight than any other class of biological compounds.

Provide insulation and protection against injury since they are a major component of fatty (adipose) tissue.
Lipid Derivatives
Phospholipids, Waxes, Steroids, Carotenoids, Porphyrins
Phopholipids
Contain glycerol, two fatty acids, phophate group, nitrogen containing alcohol
Waxes
Esters of fatty acids and monohydroxylic alcohols.

Found as protective coatings on skin, fur, leaves of higher plants.
Steroids
Three fused cyclohexane rings and one fused cyclopentane ring.

Cholesterol, Sex hormones, corticosteroids.
Sex Hormones
Testosterone and Estrogen
Carotenoids
Fatty acid-like carbon chains containing conjugated double bonds and carrying six-membered carbone rings on each end.

Pigments that produce red, yellow, orange, and brown colors in plants and animals.

Two subgroups: Carotenes and Xanthophylls.
Porphyrins
AKA: Tetrapyrroles

Contain four joined pyrrole ringes

Often complexed with a metal.

Heme complexes with Fe in hemoglobin.

Chlorophyll complexed with Mg.
Proteins elements
Contains:
Carbon
Hydrogen
Oxygen
Nitrogen
Sometimes:
Phosphorus
Sulfur
How are amino acids joined together?
Peptide Bonds via dehydration synthesis.
What are chains of Amino acids called?
Chains of amino acids formed via peptide bonds are called polypeptides or simply peptides.

AKA: Protein
Protein Primary Structure
Sequence of Amino Acids
Protein Secondary Structure
alpha helix coiling or B sheet pleating
Protein Tertiary Structure
Global 3-D structure of Protein
Protein Quaternary Structure
Structure how multiple proteins fit together
Structure of Argenine
Picture
Structure of Lysine
Picture
Structure of Histidine
Picture
Simple Proteins
Composed entirely of amino acids
Albumins and globulins
Primarily globular in nature.

Functional proteins that act as carriers or enzymes.
Scleroproteins
Fibrous in nature.

Act as structural proteins.

Collagen is an example.
Conjugated Proteins
Contain a simple protein portion, plus at least one nonprotein fraction.
Lipoproteins
Protein bound to lipid.
Mucoproteins
Protein bound to carbohydrate
Chromoproteins
Protein bound to pigmented molecules
Metalloproteins
Protein complexed around a metal ion
Nucleoproteins
Protein containing histone or protamine (nuclear protein) bound to nucleic acids
Protein Function - Hormones
Function as chemical messenger secreted into circulation.

Insulin and ACTH
Protein Function - Enzymes
Biological catalysts that act by increasing the rate of chemical reactions important for biological functions.

Amylase and lipase and ATPase
Protein Function - Structural Proteins
Contribute to physical support of a cell or tissue.

Extracellular: collagen
Intracellular: proteins in cell membranes.
Protein Function - Transport proteins
These are carriers of important materials.

Hemoglobin carries Oxygen in circulation.

Cytochromes carry electrons during cellular respiration.
Protein Function - Antibodies
Bind to foreign particles (antigens) including disease-causing organisms, that have entered the body.
What are enzymes?
Organic catalysts.
What is a catalyst?
Lower activation energy of a reaction.

Increase the rate of the reaction.

Do not affect the overall ⋀G of reaction.

Are not changed or consumed in the course of the reaction.
Why are enzymes needed?
All living systems must be continuously controlled.

Enzymes regulate metabolism by speeding up or slowing down certain chemical reactions.
How do enzymes work?
By decreasing the activation energy.
What are enzymes made of?
Proteins.

Thousands of of different enzymes can conceivably be formed.

Many enzymes are conjugated proteins and have a non-protein co-enzyme. Both must be present in order for enzymatic activity.
What is the specificity of an enzyme?
Enzymes are very selective.

Catalyze only 1 reaction or 1 specific class of related reactions.
Substrate
Molecule upon which an enzyme acts.
Active Site
Area on each enzyme to which the substrate binds.
Lock and Key Theory
Theory that the spatial structure of an enzyme's active site is exactly complementary to the spatial structure of its substrate.

Two fit together like a lock and key.

This theory is largely discounted.
Induced Fit Theory
Theory that the active site is flexible.

When appropriate substrate come in contact with the active site, conformation of the active site changes to fit the substrate.
Enzyme Reversibility
Most enzyme reactions are reversible.

The product synthesized by an enzyme can be desynthesized by the same enzyme.
Enzyme Action - Effects of Temperature
As temperature increases, in general enzyme activity increases.

At an optimal temperature, heat alters the shape of the protein leading to deactivation of the enzyme and rapid drop in rate.
Enzyme Action - Effects of pH
For each enzyme, there is optimal pH where activity decreases above and below this pH.

Many human enzymes are max at pH 7.2.

Pepsin works well at pH=2 (acidic) of stomach.

Pancreatic enzymes work best at pH 8.5 (in small intestine)
Enzyme Action - Effects of Concentration
Concentration of substrate and enzyme greatly effect the rate.

Increasing concentration will increase rate until all active sites are full.
Examples of Enzyme Activity - Hydrolysis
Hydrolysis functions to digest large molecules into smaller components.

Lactase hydrolyzes lactose to the monosaccharides glucose and galactose.

Proteases degrade proteins to amino acids.

Lipases break down lipids to fatty acids and glycerol.
Lactase
Hydrolyzes lactose to the monosaccharides glucose and galactose.
Proteases
Degrade proteins to amino acids.
Lipases
Lipases break down lipids to fatty acids and glycerol.
Examples of Enzyme Activity - Synthesis
Reversibility of enzymes.

Forward and Backward directions occur in different locations within the cell.
Cofactors/Coenzymes
Many enzymes require a non-protein element to become active.

Cofactor - Metal cations
Coenzyme - Organic groups

Most coenzymes are obtained from vitamins, can't be built.

Cofactors that bond to enzyme with strong covalent bond are called prosthetic groups.
Prosthetic Groups
Cofactors that bond to enzyme with strong covalent bond
Nucleic Acids Elements
C,H,O,N,P
Nucleic Acids
Polymers of subunits called nucleotides.

Nucleic acids (DNA,RNA) code all the information required by an organism to produce proteins and replicate.
Nucleotide Picture
Picture
Cell Theory (4)
1) All living things are composed of cells.
2) The cell is the basic functional unit of life.
3) Cells arise only from pre-existing cells.
4) Cells carry genetic information in the form of DNA. The genetic material is passed from parent to daugher cell.
Microscopy
Increase in the apparent size of an object.
Resolution
Differentiation of two closely situated objects.
Total Magnification in compound microscope.
Total=Eyepiece*Objective
Diaphragm
Controls amount of light passing through specimen.
Coarse adjustment
Roughly focuses the image
Fine adjustment
Sharply focuses the image
Compound light microscopy
Two lense system

In general for non-living

Staining is often used resulting in cell death.
Phase contrast microscopy
Special type of light microscope that permits study of living cells.

Difference in refractive indexes creates contrast between cellular structures.
Electron Microscopy
Beam of electrons to allow a thousandfold higher magnification that is possible with light.

Living specimen not possible.

Must be fixed, sectioned, and sometimes stained with solutions of heavy metals.
Centrifugation
Seperate cells or mixtures without destroying them in the process.

Heavier components will be lower.
Organelles
Specialized components within the cell (structure and function).
In a Nutshell:
Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
Example:
Prokaryotes - Bacteria
Eukaryotes - Protists, fungi, plants, animals

Cell Wall:
Prokaryotes - Present in all, composed of peptidoglycans
Eukaryotes - Cell wall present in fungi and plants only

Nucleus:
Prokaryotes - No Nucleus
Eukaryotes - Nucleus Present

Ribosomes:
Prokaryotes - Subunits=30S&50S
Eukaryotes - Subunits=40S&60S

Organelles:
Prokaryotes - No membrane-bound organelles
Eukaryotes - Membrane-bound organelles
Cell Membrane (Plasma Membrane)
Encloses Cell

Exhibits selective permeability

Regulates passage in and out of cell

Lipid bilayer leads to permeability for small nonpolar such as oxygen or small polar such as water.

Small charged particles are usually able to cross through protein channels.

Larger charged molecules cross membrane with assistance of carrier proteins.
Fluid mosaic model
Cell membrane consists of a phospholipid bilayer with proteins embedded throughout.

The lipids and many of the proteins can move freely within the membrane.
Nucleus
Controls activities of the cell, including cell division.

Surrounded by nuclear membrane.

Contains the DNA, which is complexed with structural proteins called histones, to form chromosomes.

Nucleolus is dense structure in nucleus where ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis occurs.
Nucleolus
Dense structure in nucleus where ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis occurs.
Ribosome
Sites of protein production and synthesized by nucleolus.

Free ribosomes found within cytoplasm.

Bound ribosomes line the outer membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum.
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Network of membrane-enclosed spaces involved in the transport of materials throughout the cell, particularly those materials destined to be secreted by the cell.
Golgi Apparatus
Receives vesicles and their contents from the smooth ER, modifies them, repackages them into vesicles, and distributes to cell surface via exocytosis.

smooth ER -> modify -> repackage to vesicles -> distributes via exocytosis
Mitochondria
Sites or aerobic respiration (suppliers of energy)

Bounded by an outer and inner phospholipid bilayer.
Cytoplasm
Most of cells metabolic activity occurs here.

Transport within cytoplasm occurs by cyclosis.
Cyclosis
Transport within cytoplasm occurs by cyclosis (streaming movement within the cell).
Vacuoles and Vesicles
Membrane bound sacs involved in the transport and storage of materials that are ingested, secreted, processed, or digested by the cell.

Vacuoles are larger than vesicles and more likely to be found in plant than in animal cells.
Centrioles
Specialized microtubule involved in spindle organization during cell division and not bound by a membrane.

Animal cells usually have a pair of centrioles that are oriented at right angles to each other and lies in region called centrosome.

Plant cells do no contain centrioles.
Lysosome
Membrane bound vesicles that contain hydrolytic enzymes involved in intracellular digestion.

Break down material ingested by the cell.

Injured cells can commit suicide by rupture of lysosome membrane releasing hydrolytic enzymes (autolysis)
Autolysis
Cell suicide
Cytoskeleton
Composed of microtubules and microfilaments gives cell mechanical support, maintains shape, funtions in cell motility.
Plants Cell differences from animal cells
No centrosome

Presence of cell wall composed of cellulose

Chloroplasts in many cells of green plants. Sites of snythesis of organic compounds.

No lysosomes.

Many vacuoles. Mature plants usually contain one large vacuole.
Transport methods across cell membrane
Simple Diffusion

Facilitated Diffusion

Active Transport
Simple Diffusion
Net movement of dissolved particles down their concentration gradients.

Passive, requires no energy.
Osmosis
Diffusion of water from a region of lower solute concentration to a region of higher solute concentration.
Plasmolysis
Cell shrivels due to hypertonic solution
Isotonic Solution
Cell and solution same solute concentration
Hypotonic
Cell solute concentration much greater than solution.
Hypertonic
Solution concentration much greater than cell.
Lyse
Bursting of cell.
Types of Transport in a Nutshell
Passive Diffusion:
Down Gradient
No Carrier
No energy required

Facilitated Diffusion:
Down gradient
Carrier
No energy required

Active Transport:
Against gradient
Carrier
Energy required
Facilitated diffusion
Net movement of dissolved particles down their concentration gradient through special channels or carrier proteins in cell membrane.

Requires no energy.
Active transport
Net movement of dissolved particles against their concentration gradient with the help of transport proteins.

Requires energy.
Intracellular Circulation
Brownian Movement - Movement of particles due to kinetic energy which spreads small suspended particles throughout the cyoplasm of the cell.

Cyclosis or Streaming: circular motion of cytoplasm around the cell transport molecules

Endoplasmic reticulum: provides channels throughout the cytoplasm, provides direct continuous passageway from the plasma membrane to the nuclear membrane.