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25 Cards in this Set

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Natural Selection
The differential reproduction of genotypes; caused by factors in the environment; leads to evolutionary change.
Organelles
Specialized parts of a cell; literally, small cytoplasmic organs

(endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria)
Atoms>Molecules>Macromolecules>Organelle>Cell
Organ
body structures composed of several different tissues grouped in a structural and functional unit.
Variables
Factors that influence processes.
Molecular Clock
Accumulated changes in nucleotide sequences of DNA over time.
cytochrome c gene is evolving at a steady rate
Emergent Properties
The way in which components interact, and often cannot be guessed just by looking at the parts themselves.
Phylogenetic Tree
The sequence of some genes that have been determined in many organisms and the entire time course of their evolution that is laid out with confidence by tracing the origins of particular nucleotide changes in the gene sequence
Inductive Reasoning
Logic flows from specific to general. Uses specific observations to construct general scientific principles
Francis Bacon, Isaac Newton
Deductive Reasoning
Applies General Principles to predict specific results
Cell Theory
1) All organisms composed of one or more cells
2) heredity and metaboliism occur w/in these cells
3) cells are the smallest living things
4) cells are the basic units of organization of all organisms
5) cells arise only by division of a previously existing cell
Cells
the basic units of life
Hypothesis
a suggested explanation that accounts for observations
Ecosystem
A major interacting system that includes organisms and their nonliving environment
Population>Species>Community>Ecosystem
Community (biological community)
all the populations of different species living together in one place
Population>Species>Community>Ecosystem
analogous
structures that are similar in function but different in evolutionary origin
wing of a bat and wing of a butterfly
Species
a kind of organism
Artificial Selection
the use of selected animals to produce certain characteristics
DNA
-Definition
-Long Name
Deoxyribonucleic Acid

the genetic material of all organisms
composed of two complementary chains of nucleotides wound in a double helix
theory
Proposed explanation for some natural phenomenon, often based on some general principle
homologous
from the same evolutionary origin, and with similar structure or function
gene
a discrete unit of information found within the DNA code
molecules
atoms that are joined together in clusters
genome
the entire set of DNA instructions that specifies a cell.
tissues
groups of similar cells organized into a structural and functional unit
Population
any group of individuals, usually of a single species, occupying a given area at the same time
Population>Species>Community>Ecosystem