Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
What are the steps in the scientific method?
1. make observations
2. define a problem
3. create a hypothesis
4. design an experiment
5. results
6. conclusion
What is a hypothesis?
an educated guess
What is a control?
something that stays the same
What are the different types of variables?
-independent variable: the thing that you change through the experiment

-dependent variable: the thing that changes in response to changing the independent variable
What was Redi's experiment?
To disprove spontaneous generation, Redi put meat in a jar without the lid as the control, and after a few days, there were maggots in the jar. He tried to experiment again, but with a lid on the jar, and a few days later there were no maggots in the jar.
meat and flies
What is spontaneous generation?
the hypothesis that life could arise from nonliving matter
disproven in Redi's experiment
What are characteristics of all living things?
1. made up of cells
2. reproduce
3. are based on a universal genetic code
4. grow and develop
5. obtain and use materials as energy
6. respond to their environment
7. maintain a stable internal environment
8. change over time
8 characteristics, mragormc
What are the levels of organization in biology?
molecule, cell, groups of cells, organism, population, community, ecosystem, bioshpere
starts with molecule...
What are atoms made up of?
subatonic particles:
-protons (+ charge)
-neutrons (neutral)
-electrons (- charge)
valence rings - first one holds 2 electrons , then the next hold 8
What is an isotope?
atoms of the same element that have different amounts of neutrons
What are elements made up of?
one type of atom
What are compounds?
formed by the chemical combination of two or more substances
What are the 3 types of bonds?
ionic, covalent, hydrogen
What is an ionic bond?
A bond in which electrons are trnsferred from one element to the next
What is a covalent bond?
A bond in which electrons are shared between elements
What type of bond bonds within water molecules?
covalent bond
What type of bond bonds water molecules together?
hydrogen bonds
What makes a molecule polar?
if it has a (+) and a (-) charge
What is the difference between a mixture and a pure substance?
A mixture is physically combinded, and the substances can be separated by physical means. A pure substance is chemically combined, and it forms in a fixed ratio.
What is the difference between a solution and a suspension?
I a solution, all of the substances are dissolved, but in a suspension, the solte is not dissolved in the sovlent.
What is a chemical reaction?
a process that changes one set of chemicals into another set of chemicals
What is a reactant?
the elements or compounds that enter into a chemical reaction
What is a product?
the elements or compounds produces by a chemical reaction
What is activation energy?
the energy needed to start a reaction
What do catalysts / enzymes do?
speed up a reaction by lowering activation energy