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16 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
a catabolic process that makes a limited amount of ATP from glucose without an electron transport chain and that produces a characteristic end-product, such as etyl alcohol or lactic acid
(nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) A coenzyme present in all cells that helps enzymes transfer electrons during the redox reactions of metabolism.
the splitting of glucose into pyruvate. Glycolysis is the one metabolic pathway that occurs in all living cells, serving as the starting point for fermentation or aerobic respiration.
Krebs cycle
a chemicle cycle involving eight steps that copletes the metabolic breakdown of glucose molecules to carbon dioxide; occurs within the mitochondrion; the second major stage in cellular respiration
oxidative phosphorylation
The production of ATP using energy derived from the redoox reactions of an electron transport chain.
acetyl CoA
The entry compound for the KRebs cycle in cellular respiration; formed from a fragment of pyruvated attached to a coenzyme.
The production of ATP using the energy of hydrogen ion gradients accross memrbanes to phosphorylate ADP; powers most ATP synthesis in the cells.
facultative anaerobe
An oragnism that makes ATP by aerobic respiration if oxygen is present but that switches to fermentatnion under anaerobic conditions
Microscopic pores surrounded by guard cells in the epidermis of leaves and stems that allows gas exchanged between the environment and the interior of the plant.
calvin cycle
The second of two major stages in photosynthesis (following the light reactions), involving atmospheric carbon dioxide fixation and reduction of the fixed carbon into carbohydrate.
The process of generating ATP from ADP and phosphate by means of a protonmotive force generated by the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast during the light reactions of photosynthesis.
non-cyclic phosphorylation
The production of ATP by noncyclic electron flow.
cyclic phosphorylation
The production of ATP by cyclic electron flow.
C3 Plants
A plant that uses the Calvin cycle for the initial steps that incorporate carbon dioxide into organic material, forming a three carbon compond as the first stable intermediate.
C4 Plants
A plant that prefaces that Calvin cycle with reaction that incorporate carbon dioxide into four carbon compounds, the end product of which supplies carbon dioxide for the Calvin cycle
CAM Plants
A plant that uses crassulacean acid metabolism, an adaption for photosynthesis in arid conditions, first discovered in the family Crassulacea. Carbon dioxide enterin open stomata during the night is converted into organic acids, which release carbon dioxide for the Calvin cycle during the day, when stomata are closed.