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34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
parts of a cell are called
organelles
diffusion
substances move from areas of high concentration to areas of lower concentration
osmosis
the diffusion of water
nucleus
control center of cell, contains DNA
nucleolus
makes ribosomes
nuclear pores
holes through which RNA and ribosomes travel out of the nucleus
DNA
the code book for making proteins
RNA
copies DNA and leaves the nucleus through nuclear pores and then is translated by ribosomes into protein
Ribosomes
usually found on endoplasmic reticulum, translate RNA into protein
Endoplasmic Reticulum
memberances that surround the nucleus
Rough ER
Er that countains ribosomes and makes protein
Smooth ER
produces lipid (far) based molecules, like changing cholesterol into Vitamin D
Humans have _____ genes
33,000
______ DNA strands ____ pairs
46 strands, 23 pairs
mutations...
stretch out blood cell and break it eaisly...hemoglobin
golgi apparatus
another group of membranes that modifies proteins by adding carbohydrates to them, modifies and directs protein to where they need to be
Lysosomes
bag of enzymes that is used to recycle broken cell parts and foreign particles - white blood cell consumes a bacteria - lysosome dissolves bacteria. lysosomes collect undigestible particles which might contribute to aging
apoptosis
cellular suicide
Mitochondria
provides power for cell, breaks down sugar into usable sized pieces, require oxygen, produces CO2, process called respiration, tend to be abundant in cells w/ high enery needs (muscle), have their own DNA, reproduce independently
Chloroplasts
produce sugar from CO2, H2O, and sunlight, produces glucose and oxygen, only in plants, has its own DNA, reproduces independently
Vacuoles
storage area in plants for water and other chemicals, if a vacuole isn't filled, the plant wilts, sometimes stores poision to prevent eating (locoweed)
flagellum
single tail, spins
cilia
hair like projection (like oars), the cell or if the cell is stationary used to move other substances
ameboid movement
squishy thing attaches, pulls in one direction, like inchworm
cell walls in plants
rigid, provide structure
cell wall in bacteria
counteract osmotic pressure, this is what antibiotics destroy
cell membrane
is made of phospholipids, has a protein gate, clumps of protein
phospholipids
chemicals that make up cell membrane. top round part is hydrophilic (water loving) squiggly lines are hydrophobi (wear fearing)
carbohydrate chain
marker on outside of cell, tells body if it's you or not
E.Coli
bacteria that lives in intestines, lactose goes in by diffusion
passive transport
if you want it, it will diffuse in, just open gates and let it in
active transport
once equilibrum is reached to continue bringing lastose in, the cell must pump it using energy
Endocytosis
"bubbles" in large things to get them in...markers get bubbled in too
osmosis
any cell w/ a lot of stuff in it will draw in water by osmosis and needs to pump water back out