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15 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
How would you expect the saturation levels of membrane fatty acids to differ in plants adapted to cold environments and plants adapted to hot environments?
Plants adapted to cold environments would be expected to have moreunsaturated fatty acids in their membranes, since those remain fluid at lower temperatues. Plants adapted to hot environments would be expected to have more saturated fatty acids, which would allow the fatty acids to "stack" more closely, making the membranes less fluid and therefore helping them to stay intact at higher temperatures.
The carbohydrats attached to some of the proteins and lipids of the plasma membrane are added as the membrane is made and refined in ER and Golgi apparatus; the new membrane then forms transport vesicles that travel to the cell surface. On which side of the visicle membrane are the carbohydrates?
They are on the innver side of the transport vesicle membrane.
Write the formula for a monosaccharide that has three carbons.
A dehydration reaction joins two glucose molecules to form maltose. The formula for glucose is C6H12O6. What is the formula for maltose?
Compare and contrast starch and cellulose.
Both molecules are polymers of glucose made by plants, but starch functions mainly for sugar storage and cellulose is a structural polysaccharide that is the main material of plant cell walls.
Compare the structure of a fat with that of a phospholipid.
Both have a glycerol molecule attached to fatty acids. The glycerol of a fat has three fatty acids, whereas the glycerol of a phospholipid has two fatty acids and one phosphate group.
How do saturated fats differ from unsaturated fats, both in structure and in behaviour?
The fatty acids on a saturated fat have no double bonds ibn their hydrocarbon chains, whereas at least one fatty acid on an unsaturated fat has a double bond. Saturated fats tend to be solid at room temperature, while unsaturated fats are liquid.
Why are human sex hormones considered to be lipids?
Human sex hormones are steroids, a type of hydrophobic compound.
Why does a denatured protein no longer function normally?
The function of each protein is a consequence of its specific shape, which is lost when a protein becomes denatured.
Differentiate between secondary and tertiary structure by describing the parts of the polypeptide chain that participate in the bonds that hold together each level of structure.
Secondary structure involves hydrogen bonds between atoms of the polypeptide backbone. Tertiary structure involves bonding between atoms of the R groups of the amino acid subunits.
A genetic mutation can change a protein's primary structure. How can this destroy the protein's function?
It affects the secondary structure, which affects the tertiary structure etc. The amino acid sequence affects the shape of the protein, and the function of a protein depends on its shape.
In a DNA double helix, a region along one DNA strand has a sequence 5'-TAGGCCT-3'. List the base sequence along the other strand of the molecule.
What are the four main classes of large biological molecules?
Proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and nucleic acids.
How many molecules of water are needed to completely hydrolyze a polymer that is 10 monomers long?
Nine, with one water required to hydrolyze each connected pair of monomers.
After you eat a slice of apple, which reactions must occur for the amino acid monomers in the protein ofthe apple to be converted into proteins in your body?
The amino acids in the apple protein are released in hydrolysis reactions and incorporated into your proteins in dehydration reactions.