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36 Cards in this Set

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Protons
+ charge, inside nucleus
Neutrons
No charge, inside nucleus
Electrons
- charge, orbit outside nucleus
Atomic Number
# of protons
Atoomic weight (mass)
# protons = # neutrons
Valence Shell
outer most energy level
maximum number of electrons in valance shell = 8.
ions
atoms that gain or lose electrons
ionic bonds
weak bonds, easy to break
covalent bonds
strong bonds, hard to break (example: water/H20)
Molecules
2 or more atoms bonded covalently (strong bonds)
Compounds
2 or more different kinds of atoms bonded together (can be covelent or ionic/ strong or weak)
Hydrogen Bonds
form between two polar molecules
Polar molecule
a molecule tht does not share its electrons equally, which causes one side of the molecule to have a + charge and the other side a - charge.
catalyst
a chemical substance that increases the rate of a reaction without being consumed (used up)
enzymes
made up of protein, speed up a reaction, are found in all living things, activity depends on PH level, temp., amt. of enzyme, and substrate.
-ase
most enzymes end with these three letters.
substrate
is what the enzyme is going to react with
solvent
a substance thath dissolves other substances
aqueous solution
any solution in which H2O is the solvent.
solute
any material dissolved in a solution
hydrophilic
water loving (ex. sodium, chlorine)
hydrophobic
water fearing (ex. fats,oils...)
polar compound
a compound with a molecule that behaves like a small bar magnet with a + charge on one end and a - charge on the other end
cohesion
tendency of H2O molecules to stick together. Things that are alike stick together.
adhesion
tendency of H2O molecules to stick to polar surfaces. Water sticks to some surfaces other than H2O.
capillarity
movement of H2O throughnarrow tubes as a result of cohesion and adhesion.
acid
when the # of hydronium ions in a solution is greater than the # of hydroxide ions (PH = 1-6)
alkaline
refers to bases
buffer
a solution or liqud whose chemical makeup neutralizes acids or bases w/out a great change in PH.
base
when # of hydroxide ions in a solution is greater then # of hydronium ions (PH = 8-14)
free energy
energy in a system that is available for work
activation energy
energy needed to start work
endergonic reaction
reactions thta involve a net absorption of free energy
exergonic reaction
reactions that have a release of energy
oxidation reaction
releases/loses 1 or moer electrons and becomes postitive.
reduction reaction (redox)
gains one or more electrons and becomes negative