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21 Cards in this Set

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Obligate anaerobes
Cannot survive in the presence of 02
Facultative aerobes
Can survive with or without 02
Obligate aerobes
Require 02 to survive
Rough ER (rER)
Site of protein production and transport destined for secretion
-Determined by a signal sequence of hydrophobic amino acids on the protein
Smooth ER (sER)
Involved in lipid syntehsis, carbohydrate (glycogen) metabolism) and detoxification of drugs and poisons, network of tubes
Golgi Apparatus (Complex)
Stack of flattened sacs involved in protein secretion (release), proteins are modified and packaged as they move from cis to trans
Cis Golgi
Stacks closest to the ER, recieving
Trans Golgi
Closer to plasma membrane.
Vesicles containing finished protein move to destinations inside/outside cell
Lysosome (animal, rare in plant)
Contain hydrolytic enzymes with optimum pH 5 provided by pumping of H+, separated by membrane.
-Breaks down proteins, carbs, nuc. acids
-Degrades bacteria or damaged cells (WBC)
-Provide food for the cell
Peroxisome
Contains oxidative enzymes that catalyze reactions in which hydrogen peroxide s produced and degraded by CATALSE.
-Break down fats into small molecules for fuel
-Detoxify compounds like alcohol in liver
Microtubules
(Thickest) hollow rods made of TUBULIN protein, provide framework for organelle, flagella and cilia m ovement. Make up centrioles and spindle fibers involved in cell division.
Microfilaments
(Thinnest) solid rods made of ACTIN protein, muscle cell contraction, cell division cleavage furrow formation, cell motility (eg amoebas)
Intermediate Filaments
Fibrous protein, maintains integrity and support, cell shape
Integral Proteins (Transmembrane)
MEMBRANE PROTEIN: penetrate PM partially or completely. Some form a hydrophilic channel for ions and polar molecules to pass
Peripheral Proteins
MEMBRANE PROTEIN: attached to surface of membrane
Glycocalyx
Fuzzy coat made of sticky oligosaccharides
Oligosaccaride
(small chains of sugars), usually bonded to protein (glycoprotein) or sometimes bonded to lipids (glycolipid), serve as cell recognition--> vary from individual to individual
Tight Junctions
Forms seal that prevents leakage of extracellular fluid into the lumen (space), also better control of what enters/leaves tissue
Gap Junctions
Intercellular protein channels that permit free passage of ions and small molecules between cells
Desmosomes
localized patches that hold two cells tightly together, reinforced by keratin
Plasmodesmata
Bigger than gap junction, protein channels for intercellular transport between plant cells