Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/106

Click to flip

106 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
invertebrate
animals that have no backbone, or vertebral colomn
vertebrate
5% of animals, including fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals that have a backbone
blastula
when the zygote undergoes a series of divisions to form a hollow ball of cells. when folds, forms blastopore
protostome
animal whose mouth is formed from the blastopore (blastula)(all up to echinoderms)
deuterostome
animal whose anus is formed from the blastopore (starting at echinoderms)
mesoderm
middle layer, with muscles, circulatory, reproductive, and excretory systems
endoderm
innermost germ layer, linings of the digestive tract and respiratory system
ectoderm
outermost layer, sense organs, nerves, and the outer layer of the skin
asymmetry
no symmetry
cephalization
concentration of sense organs and nerve cells at the front end of the body (head)
osculum
large hole at the top of the sponge where water leaves the sponge
spicule
spike-shaped structure made of chalklike calcium carbonate (sponges skeleton)
internal fertilization
in sponges, sperm are rleased from one sponge and are carried by water currents until they enter the pores of another sponge
larva
immature stage of an organism that looks different from the adult form
medusa
motile, bell shaped body with mouth on the bottom (jellyfish)
gastrovascular cavity
a digestive chamber with one opening, that food enters and wastes leave through (cnidarians)
nerve net
loosely organized network of nerve cells that together allow cnidarians to detect stiimuli (jellyfish)
hydrostatic skeleton
layer of muscles that together with the water in the gastrovascular cavity, enable the cnidarian to move
cnidocyte
stinging cells located in the tentacles
nematocyst
poison filled, stinging structure; contains a tightly coiled dart (rings) in tentacles used to defend
acoelomate
doesn't have a coelom
coelom
contains the organs of an animal. body cavity that is lined with tissue derived from mesoderm (roundworms=pseudocoelom; earthworms=true)
pharynx
section of the digestive system that extends from the mouth (flatworms)
flame cell
hollow cell in the excretory system that contains cilia that help to propel waste into excretory tubes (flatworms)
hermaphrodite
organism having both female and male reproductive parts
scolex
head of a tapeworm
proglottid
segment of a tapeworm
pseudocoelom
false coelom (roundworm)
crop
where food stored (earthworms/annelids or birds)
gizzard
where food ground into smaller pieces
closed circulation
blood is contained within a network of blood vessels
nephridium
excretory organs that filter fluid in the coelom (ammonia)
clitellum
band of thinckened, specialized segments, secretes a mucus ring into which eggs and sperm are released
trocophore
free swimming larval stage of aquatic mollusks
mantle
thin layer of tissue that covers most of a mollusk's body
visceral mass
area beneath the mantle of a mollusk that contains the inner organs
radula
flexible, tongue shaped structure in which hundreds of tiny teeth are attached that helps snails and slugs feed
siphon
tube like structure through which water enters and leaves a mollusks' body
open circulation
blood isn't always contained within a network of blood vessels
pheromone
specific chemical messenger that affects the behavior or developmet of other individuals of the same species
exoskeleton
tough extenal covering that protects and supports the body of many invertebrates
endoskeleton
inside skeleton
appendage
structures such as legs and antennae that ext3end from the body wall
trachael tube
one of the many branching, air filled tubes that extends throughout the bodies of many terrestrial arthropods
spiracle
air enters and leaves these small openings along the side of the body
book lung
organ that has layers of respiratory tissue stacked like the pages of a book. (arthropods)
Malpighian tubule
saclike organs that extract wastes fromt he blood and then add them to feces, or digestivee wastes, that move through the gut
molting
process in which arthropods shed its exoskeleton and manufactures a larger one to take its place
cephalothorax
region formed when the head is fused with the thorax (arthropods)
abdomen
posterior part of the arthropods body (back)
carapace
part of the exoskeleton that covers the cephalothorax
mandible
mouth part adapted for biting and grinding food (arthropods)
cheliped
claws on lobsters (arthropods) first pair of legs
swimmerets
flipperlike appendages used for swiming
pedipalp
pair of mouthparts in a chelicerate (arthropods/spiders)used to grab prey
spinneret
organ in spiders that contain silk glands (arthropods)
metamorphosis
process of changing shape and form. (insects)
nymph
immature form (incomplete metamorphosis)lack functional sexual organs and other adult structures, like wings
pupa
stage of metamorphosis in which an insect changes from larva to an adult
water vascular system
system of internal tubes in echinoderms
chordate
has a dorsal (hollow nerve cord), a notochord, pharyngleal pouches, and tail that extends beyond the anus
notochord
long suppporting rod that runs through the body just below the nerve chord. (embyro) (chordate)
pharyngeal pouches
paired structures in the throat region (chordate)
vertabrae
individual segments in a backbone
ventricle
lower chamber of the heart that pumps the blood out of the heart
cartilage
strong connective tissue that supports tthe body and is softer and more flexible than bone
cerebrum
area of the brain responsible for all voluntary acitivities of the body (thinking)
cerebellum
region of the brain that controls body momements
medulla oblongata
area of the brain that controls the functions of many internal organs
lateral line system
sensitive receptor system that enables fish to detect gentle currents and vibrations in the water
swim bladder
internal gas-filled organ in many bony fishes that adjusts their bouyancy
oviparous
eggs hatch outside the mothers body
ovoviviparous
animals whose young are born alive after developing in eggs inside the mother's body (sharks)
viviparous
nourished directly from the mother's body as they develop
cloaca
muscular cavity at the end of the large instestine through which digestive wastes, urine, and eggs or sperm leave the body
nictitating membrane
movable transparent membrane in amphibians located inside the regular eyelid; protects the surface of the eye from damage under water and keeps it moist on land
tympanic membrane
eardrum of amphibians inside the skull; vibrates in response to sound allowing hearing
ecotherm
rely on behavior to help control body temperature
(warm up=sun)
amniotic egg
egg composed of shell and membranes that create a protected environment in which the embryo can develop out of the water
endoderm
animals that can generate their own body heat
air sac
inhaled air enters here, creates ONE WAY air flow in birds
monotreme
egg laying mammals
marsupial
mammals bearing live young that usually complete development in an external pouch
placenta
an organ in which nutrients, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and wastes are exchangedefficiently between the embryo and it's mother
binocular vision
ability to merge visual images from both eyes, 3D
anthropoid
human-like primates
prehensile
limb that can grasp
hominoid
great apes (old)
hominid
modern humans and their extinct relatives
bipedal
two-foot locomotion
opposable thumb
a digit which evolved in the hominid family, enabled grasping objects and using tools
alveolus
thousands of bubblelike structures in the lungs of mammals
behavior
way an organism reacts to changes
stimulus
signal that carries information and can be detected
response
reaction to a stimulus
innate behavior
instinct
learning
acquired behavior
habituation
process by which an animal decreases or stops its response to a repetitive stimulus that neither rewards nor harms the animal
classical conditioning
making a mental connection between a stimulus and some kind of reward or punishment
operant conditioning
animal learns to behave in a certain way through repeated practice in order to get a reward
insight learning
reasoning
imprinting
animals with their mothers, ect.
migration
periodic movement from one place to another and then back again
circadian rhythem
behavioral cycles that occur in daily patterns (sleep at night)
courtship
when an individual sends out stimuli in order to attract a member of the opposite sex
aggresion
threatening behavior that one animal uses to gain control over another