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32 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Substance prepared from killed or weakened pathogens
Referring to the deadliness of a disease-causing agent
The transfer of genetic material from one organism to another
Virus that infects bacteria
Double Helix
Spiral-staircase structure characteristic of the DNA molecule
Subunit of nucleic acids consisting of a nitrogenous base, a sugar, and a phosphate group
Five-carbon sugar that is a component of DNA nucleotides
Base-pairing rules
The rule stating that in DNA adenine on one strand always pairs with a thymine on the opposite side
Characteristic of nucleic acids in which the sequence of bases on one strand determines the sequence of bases on the other
DNA replecation
The process of making a copy of DNA
DNA helicase
Enzyme that breaks the hydrogent bonds between bases during DNA replecation
Replication fork
A y-shaped point that results when a double helix of DNA separates so that it can be copied
DNA polymerase
Enzyme that catalyzes the replication ff DNA by adding complementary nucleiotides
Ribonucleac acid
A type of nucleic acid involved in protein synthesis
Nitrogen-containing base of RNA
Stage of protein synthesis in which the information in DNA for making a protein is transferred to an RNA molecule
Stage of gene expression in which the information in mRNA is used to make protein
Gene expression
Two-stage processing of information encoded in DNA to produce proteins
RNA polymerase
Enzyme that adds and links complementary RNA nucleiotides during transcription
Messenger RNA
RNA copy of a gene used as a blueprint for the making of a protein during translation
A three-nucleiotide sequence in DNA or mRNA that encodes an amino acid or signifies a sop signal
Gentetic Code
Sequence of nuleotides that specifies the amino acid sequence of a protein
Transfer RNA
RNA molecule that temporarily carries a specific amino acid to a ribosome during translation
A three-nucleiotide sequenc eon tRNA that recognizes a complementary codon on mRNA
Ribosomal RNA
Type of RNA molecule that plays a structural role in ribosomes
Region of DNA that controls RNA polymerase's access to a set of genes with related functions
Segment of DNA tat controls gene regulation in a set of genes with related functions in prokaryotes
Lac operon
Gene system with a promoter, an operater gene, and three structural genes that control lactose metabolism
Protein that bindsto the operatorin an operon o switch off transcription
Segement of mRNA transcribed from Eukaryotic DNA but removed before translation of mRNA into a protein
Sequence of Nucleotides on a gene that gets transcribed and translated
point mutation
Mutation in which one or just a few nucleotides in a gene are changed