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28 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Define community
all of the organisms that live together in a specific place
Define species richness
the # of species present
Define primary productivity
the amt of energy produced
Define assemblage
group of species that make up only a portion of the community
What is the diff. between individualist concept and holistic concept of biological communities?
individualistic: community is a aggregation of species in one place.
holistic: a community is an integrated unit, a sum of its parts.
Define ecotone.
places where the environment changes abruptly
Define niche.
the total of all the ways an organism uses the resources of its environment
Define interspecific competition.
when two species try to use the same resource and there isn't enough for both
Define interference competition.
fighting, defense of territory to get resources
Define exploitation competition.
when two species compete to consume the same resource
What is the diff. between a fundamental and a realized niche?
the entire fundamental niche that the species is capable of using
realized is what is available to the species
define the principle of competitive exclusion
if 2 species are using the same resource, the one that is more efficient will eventually eliminate the other
define resource partitioning
when a species divides resources
define character displacement
differences in morphology evident in sympatric species
how do predator-prey relationship led to coevolution?
both predators may prey on the same species, or adults of one species may prey on the offspring of the other
list 4 methods that prey use to avoid predation
chemical defenses
chemical coloration
difficult structure to consume
define mimicry
prey resembles another species
define symbiosis
two or more kinds of organisms interact in more or less permanent relationships
what is the diff. between commensalism, mutualism and parasitism?
commensalism: benefits one species and is neutral to another.
mutualism: benefits both species
parasitism: benefits one species at the expense of another
describe the diff. between ecto and endoparasites
ectoparasites feed on exterior surface of organism host. endoparasites feed inside host.
how can predation and parasitism reduce competition?
parasites can affect sympatric species differently, changing the outcome of interspecific interactions
what are keystone species?
species who have a strong effect on communities
what is the diff. between primary and secondary succession?
primary: occurs on bare, lifeless substrate. Secondary: occurs in areas where existing community has been disturbed but organisms still remain
define tolerance
when early successional species are characterized by r-selected species tolerant of harsh conditions
define facilitation
when early successional species introduce local changes in the habitat and k-selected species take over
define inhibition
change in the habitat caused by one species inhibits the growth of the original species
give 3 reasons why communities are changing
climatic changes
species invasion
disturbance events
define the intermediate disturbance hypothesis and its results
communities experiencing moderate amounts of disturbance will have higher levels of species richness. patches of habitat will exist at different stages. this may prevent communities from reaching final stages of succession