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33 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
where is sperm produced?
seminiferous tubules
what does the female reproductive system do?
produces eggs, prepares the body to carry an embryo, and release eggs into the fallopian tubes. (DOES NOT DELIVER SPERM)
in which system is sperm made and delivered?
the male reproductive system
phases of the mentrual cycle
menstruation, ovulation, luteal (NOT FERTILIZATION)
when does an egg have the best chance to be fertilized?
at the beginning of the luteal phase
what happens during the menstrual cycle?
LH and FSH peak causing the follicle to release a mature egg
when does menstruation not occur
if the egg is fertilized
fertilized egg
when are the chances of fertilization very good?
if a blastocyst is already present, the egg is in the fallopian tubes, and the woman is menstruating
what must occur for fertilization to happen inside the female body?
sperm must swim into a fallopian tube, an egg must be present in the fallopian tube, and the nucleus of a sperm must enter the egg cell
where does gastrulation occur?
what is the result of gastrulation?
germ layers
what is the last process?
what does the placenta do?
it provides nutrients to the fetus
how does the placenta connect the fetus to the mother?
connects the fetus to the mother's uterus
what can cause diseases?
pathogens, cigarette smoke, and fungi
how do antibiotics fight infections
kill bacteria
what are the body's nonspecific defenses against invading pathogens?
mucus, sweat, tears
what does the inflammatory response cause?
pain, swelling, fever
body's most important nonspecific defense
the skin
what happens when a person receives a vaccine?
their body creates plasma cells that can produce antibodies against specific pathogens
humoral immunity is carried out by
if a person has memory B cells against a certain pathogen
the person is not likely to develop the disease a second time
an immune response is triggered by
an antigen
asthma is an example of
the immune system overreacting to an antigen
examples of bacterial pathogens
tuberculosis, cholera, and tetanus (NOT MEASLES)
which of the following is not correct?
antigens are not the third line of defense
any substance capable of elicting an immune response
white blood cells that recognize specific invadors
involved in humoral immunity
B cells, antibodies, plasma cells
what are the steps of cell-mediated immunity?
infected cells display antigens on the cell surface, T cells bind to antigens, T cell clones are formed, killer T cells destroy infected cells
what is the relationship between macrophages and helper T cells?
macrophages display the antigens of the virus or bacteria and then present this to the helper T cell
lymphocytes do not/are not
mature in the thymus, nonspecific immune cells, originate from T cells