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102 Cards in this Set

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What is genetic engineering?
Moving genes from one organism to another
moving
what do restriction enzymes do?
cut out DNA
cut
what are the 4 stages of genetic engineering?
1. restriction enzymes cut out the dna
2. producing recombinant dna
3.cloning recombinant plasmids
4. screening cells
cut paste and check
How do you make intro free dna for genetic engineering?
cut out the introns and join processed mRNA together
mrna
Is everyone's DNA different?
yes
What are the steps of DNA fingerprinting?
1.tandemly arranged repeats or repetitious nucleotides between genes
2.restriction endonuclease-cuts DNA, leaving fragments of different lengths.
3.DNA fingerprint -distinctive pattern lengths based on heredity
4.augerose-repeats the pattern in augerose
(gene(Intron(gene(
what are some uses for genetic engineering in medicine?
1. human insulin created from bacteria
2.anti-coagulants and coagulants for heart patients and hemopheliacs
3.vaccines
4.gene therapy
5.stem cells
what are some pros and cons or genetically modified crops?
pros: you can add nutrients to foods that do not naturally contain them, faster growth rates

cons:the longterm effects of these foods are unknown
what is genomics?
comparing the dna content of different organisms
what is dna sequencing?
determining the complete sequence of nucleotides or an organism
what are the parts or the human genome?
1.protien encoding genes-exons-1 - 1.5%
2.non-coding dna within genes-introns-24%
3.structural dna - 20%
4. repeated sequences (SSR) simple sequence repeats - 10%
5. transposable elements-bits of dna that can jump from one location on a chromosome to another- 45%
what is cloning?
making an exact copy
what is the major problem with cloning?
ethics
what is the cloning process?
you take an egg from a seragate and a body cell from the clonee. remove the nucleus of the gamete and stick the nucleus of the body cell in the gamete. shock the cell to make it divide and it begins growing into an embryo then put the embryo back into the mother.
what are pluripotent cells?
cells having the ability to become and body tissue even animals
what is gene intervention?
altering a person's genes (gene therapy)
what are prokaryotes?
bacteria and archaea that lack an organized nucleus
what are the 3 morphological forms or bacteria?
1. baccilus-rod shaped
2.coccus-round shaped
3.spirilla-spiral shaped
how do bacteria reproduce?
asexually by binary fission and sexually by conjugation
what are photoautotrophs?
bacteria that carry out photosynthesis and make their own food using light
ex:cyanobacteria in the water
what are chemoautotrophs?
bacteria that oxidize inorganic material such as iron and sulphur deposits
what are photoheterotrophs?
bacteria that use light energy but have to obtain carbon from organic substances
what are chemoheterotrophs?
bacteria that obtain both carbon and energy from organic substances.
decomposers
ex:heterotriphic
what are archaea?
primitive prokaryotes without peptigoglycan in their cell walls
what are methanogens?
anaerobic archaea that produce methane gas from organic substances - natural gas
what are extremophiles?
archaea that live in salty environments
what are thermoacidophiles?
archaea that live in hot acidic springs
what are bacteria?
prokaryotes that contain peptigoglycan in their cell walls
what are vectors?
organisms that carry and trasmit disease
ex:tick
what is a pathogen?
the bacteria that causes a disease
ex: spirilla bacteria causes lyme disease.
what are viruses?
"non-living" sengments of nucleic acids with protien coats.
what are bacteriophages?
viruses that infect bacteria
what is the lytic cycle?
1. a virus infects a cell.
2. the virus injects its dna into the cell
3.the cell reproduces the virus' dna
4.the cell puts a protien coat around the viruses
5. the viruses are released into the body
what is the lysogenic cycle?
1. a virus infects a cell.
2. the virus injects its dna into the cell
3.viral dna incorporates itself into your dna cycle
4.the cells divide and produce more cells with viral dna.
what is HIV?
human immunedeficiency virus-the cause of aids
what is aids?
aquired immunedificiency syndrome
what are some human diseases caused by viruses?
chicken pox
ebola
hepatitis b
herpes
influenza
bird flu
what is bioterrorism?
using viruses and bacteria to as a weapon
what are the 3 lines of defense in the immune system?
1.skin and mucuos membranes
2. cellular and chemical-white blood cells and chemical protiens
3.specific immunity-t and b cells - antibodies
what are the layers of the skin?
1.the epidermis-constantly being replaced
2.the dermis-structural support, contains hair follicles and sweat glands.
3.subcutaneous-fat rich cells
what are the components of the cellular and chemical line of defense?
1.macrophages-white blood cells that ingest bacteria
2.nuetrophils-white blood cells that release chemicals killing bacteria and themselves
3.natural killer cells-white blood cells that attack body cells that are infected by microbes.
4.complement system-chemical defense protiens that are activated when they come into contact with bacteria and fungi.
how do natural killer cells kill cancer and virus infected cells?
1. they attack themselves to the cell membrane of the infected cell.
2.releases perforin to perforate the cell membrane of the infected cell.
3. water rushes into the cell and causes it to explode
what are interferons?
protiens that protect cells against viruses
what is an autoimmune disease?
a disease that causes body defense cells to attack your own body's tissue
examples: MS,rhuematoid arthritis
how does an inflammatory response happen?
1.infected cells release a chemical alarm-histamines and prostaglandins
2.blood vessels expand and increase blood flow to the site causing redness and swelling
2. stretched capillaries and increased blood flow bring macrophages and neutrophils to kill and engulf pathogens and dead cells
4.macrophages send a signal to increase body temperature to inhibit microbial growth
what does the 3rd line of defense or specific immunity consist of?
white blood cells called leukocytes and antibodies.
t and b cells called lymphocites
what is an antigen?
foreign protiens to your body such as bacteria and viruses
what is an antibody?
markers identifying cells for destruction
what are t-cells?
cells that originate in the bone marrow and travel to the thymus. they recognize microbes, antigens and viruses marked by the b cells and attack and destroy them
what are b-cells?
humoral immune response cells that mark cells for destruction which come from the bone marrow and are released into the blood and lymph
what is MHC?
protiens that enable your body to recognize its own cells from foreign ones
what is antibody diversity?
the ability of out immune system to recognize millions of different antigens and is its capacity to produce millions of different antibodies
what is vaccination?
the introduction of dead or disabled pathogens which trigger an immune response
what is an alergy?
a major response to a harmless substance.
what is evolution?
the changing of species over time
what is microevolution?
changes in gene frequencies
what is macroevolution?
enough change in a population to produce a new species, takes longer than microevolution.
what are the two paces of evolution?
1.Gradation-slow
2.punctuated equilibrium-faster changes due to environmental changes
what are some evidences of evolution?
1.fossils
2.molecular records-hemoglobin polypeptide chains
3.molecular clocks-cytochrome c
4.anatomical records
5.embryology
6.convergent evolution
what are the different types of anatomical records?
1.homologous structures-derived from the same ancestral body part
2.analogous structures-not related but develong to adaptations to similar environments
3.vestigial organs-human appendix
what are viruses?
"non-living" sengments of nucleic acids with protien coats.
what are bacteriophages?
viruses that infect bacteria
what is the lytic cycle?
1. a virus infects a cell.
2. the virus injects its dna into the cell
3.the cell reproduces the virus' dna
4.the cell puts a protien coat around the viruses
5. the viruses are released into the body
what is the lysogenic cycle?
1. a virus infects a cell.
2. the virus injects its dna into the cell
3.viral dna incorporates itself into your dna cycle
4.the cells divide and produce more cells with viral dna.
what is HIV?
human immunedeficiency virus-the cause of aids
what is aids?
aquired immunedificiency syndrome
what are some human diseases caused by viruses?
chicken pox
ebola
hepatitis b
herpes
influenza
bird flu
what is bioterrorism?
using viruses and bacteria to as a weapon
what are the 3 lines of defense in the immune system?
1.skin and mucuos membranes
2. cellular and chemical-white blood cells and chemical protiens
3.specific immunity-t and b cells - antibodies
what are the layers of the skin?
1.the epidermis-constantly being replaced
2.the dermis-structural support, contains hair follicles and sweat glands.
3.subcutaneous-fat rich cells
what are the components of the cellular and chemical line of defense?
1.macrophages-white blood cells that ingest bacteria
2.nuetrophils-white blood cells that release chemicals killing bacteria and themselves
3.natural killer cells-white blood cells that attack body cells that are infected by microbes.
4.complement system-chemical defense protiens that are activated when they come into contact with bacteria and fungi.
how do natural killer cells kill cancer and virus infected cells?
1. they attack themselves to the cell membrane of the infected cell.
2.releases perforin to perforate the cell membrane of the infected cell.
3. water rushes into the cell and causes it to explode
what are interferons?
protiens that protect cells against viruses
what is an autoimmune disease?
a disease that causes body defense cells to attack your own body's tissue
examples: MS,rhuematoid arthritis
how does an inflammatory response happen?
1.infected cells release a chemical alarm-histamines and prostaglandins
2.blood vessels expand and increase blood flow to the site causing redness and swelling
2. stretched capillaries and increased blood flow bring macrophages and neutrophils to kill and engulf pathogens and dead cells
4.macrophages send a signal to increase body temperature to inhibit microbial growth
what is convergent evolution?
parallel evolutionary adaptations to similar environments
what is populations genetics and the Hardy Weinburg rule?
alleles in a population remain constant if:
1.there is a large population
2.mating is random
3.there are no mutations
4.there is no immigration and no emigration
5.no natural selection
what happens if the criteria for the Hardy Weinburg rule dont hold up?
you will get evolution
what are the agents of evolutionary change?
1.mutations
2.migration-immigration
3.genetic drift-founder or bottleneck effects
4.non random mating
5.natural selection
what is the founder effect?
when a group stays together and mates within the group, and example is the amish in which defects such as having 6 fingers and toes are more common.
what is the bottleneck effect?
the bottleneck effects is when 95% of a population is wiped out. the remaining 5% of the population will will reproduce but will not match the old population.
what are the forms of selection?
1.stabilization-reduces extreme phenotypes making the intermediate phenotype more common
2.disruptive-reduces the intermediate phenotypes and leaves the extremes
3.directional-tends to reduce one extreme phenotype from the population
what are some adaption within populations?
1. sickle cell anemia-and adaption in africa to protect from malaria
2.color selection in guppies-different coloration in guppies where different types of predetors live.
what does a prezygotic isolation mechanism do?
does not allow zygotes to form
what are the types of prezygotic isolation mechanisms?
1.geographic isolation-separated geographically
2.ecological isolarion-different habitats
3.behavioral isolation-unable to pick up each others behavior
4.temporal isolation-mate at different times of the year
5.mechanical isolation-anatomy is not compatible
6.incompatibility of gametes-sperm cannot fertilize the egg
what are some postzygotic mechanisms?
1.hybrid embryo does not develop
2.hybrid adults dont survive
3.hybrid adults are sterile or have reduced fertility-example: horse + donkey = mule <---infertile
what are the geological time scales?
1.era
2.period
3.epoch
4.age
what era, period, epoch, and age do we live in?
we currently live in the cenozoic era, the quarternary period, the recent ephoch and the historical time age.
when and what happened in the precambrian era?
4.6 billion to 543 million years ago - life started, oldest fossils, and algea thrived.
when and what happened in the paleozoic era?
543 to 248 million years ago - plants colonized land, carbiniferous period-fossil fuels created, bony fish,insects, amphibians, origin of reptiles. mass destruction by a meteor impact happens during the permiam period.
when and what happened in the mesozoic era?
248 to 65 million years ago - cone bearing plants dominate, flowering plants appear, reptiles dominate, "age of the dinosaurs" mass destruction happens during the cretacious period
when and what happened in the cenozoic era?
65 million years ago to the present - age of mammals, birds, flowering plants dominate, origin of primates and humans
what is a phylogenetic tree?
a diagram similar to the branches of a tree that illustrates evolutionary relationship.
what special features do primates have?
grasping fingers and toes
what is the order of primate evolution?
1.prosimians
2.arthropoids
3.homonids
what are prosimians?
the oldest primates that came "before monkeys" that are small and nocturnal. some examples are lemurs and tarsyrs.
what are arthropoids?
"higher primates" like monkeys, apes, and humans.
how similar are the genes of chimps and humans?
98.6% similar
What are homonids?
primates with large brains, walk upright, such as apes and humans.
1.australopithicus (genus)
2.homo (genus)
what are the categories of homonids?
1.australopithicus-bipedel(upright)
2.homo habilis-associated with "tools" were handymen and able to make fire
3.homo erectus-first true humans,taller, larger brains, speech possibly?
4.homo neanderthals-diverse tools,symbolic thinking,believed in life after death,lived in groups or clans, larger brains.
5.homo sapiens-(cro-magnongs) replaced neanderthals,full language,social organizations,sophisticated tools.
what is the multiregional model of human evolution?
repeated migrations out of Africa. homo erectus population grows and moves to different parts by land bridges.
what is the out of africa model of human evolution?
homo sapiens evolve from homo erectus in Africa and move to other areas in Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia 100,000 years ago.