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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the Copying of DNA is called
Replication
Chromosomes can only be seen when a cell is ____
Dividing
Uncoiled chromosomes are called-___
chromatin
DNA tightly coils by wrapping around what kind of protein?
Histones
what are duplicated (doubled) chromosomes called?
Chromatids
what holds the chromatids together?
Centromere
sketch and label all parts of sister chromatids...
see worksheet
What is asexual reproduction
involves a single cell dividing to make 2 new identical daughter cells
give 2 examples of asexual reproduction
mitosis and bianary fission
what is sexual reproduction?
involves 2 cells (egg and sperm) joining to make a new ell (zygote) not identical to parent cells. (proccess meiosis)
Describe what occurs ing hte G1 stage of interphase
Growth...cells mature by making more cytoplasm and organelles
What does a cell make during the G2 stage right before mitosis?
Organelles and proteins (example:Centrioles)
What part of the cell actually divides during mitosis
nucleus
give another name for mitosis
karyokinesis
name in order the four stages of mitosis
Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
what happens to the nucleus and nucleolus during prophase?
Broken down
Druing telophase as the chromosomes uncoil, they reappear as
chromatin
what process or phase follows telophase
cytokinesis
what divides during cytokinesis
cytoplasm
explain how cytokinesis occurs in plants
cell plate forms at equator to divide cell
explain how cytokinesis occurs in animals
cleavage furrow forms to split cell
How does the chromosome number of the parent cell compare to that of the 2 daughter cells? how do the 3 cells compare in size?
same # chromosomes...parent cells are larger than daughter cells.
Eukaryotic cells before and after mitosis are ____ or 2n
diploid
diploid=_____
Body cells (contain all chromosomes needed)
Haploid=____
sex cells and gametes(contain 1/2 chromosomes needed total)
What is the chromosome number of the daughter cells produced by meiosis? How does this compare to teh number of chromosomes in the original cell?
haploid=1n.....daughter cells have 1/2 the # of chromosomes as parent
what are the daughter cells called that are produced by meiosis?
gametes, egg & sperm
is meiosis sexual or asexual reproduction?
sexual
are eggs and sperm haploid or diploid?
haploid
what process joins the egg and sperm to restore the original chromosome number of the organism?
fertilization
when a sperm fertilizes an egg, a new 2n cell forms called the
zygote
_____reduces the chromosomes # by 1/2 while _____ restores it
Meiosis, Fertilization
What is a tetrad?
2 homolog chromosomes joined together
(two colors..one from mother and one from father)
Crossing over results in genetic ______in the offspring
recombination
where does spermatogenesis occur?
testes
where does oogenesis occur?
ovaries
name the 4 cells produced by oogenesis..
3 polar bodies and one egg
what happens to the polar bodies and WHY?
they die b/c unequal division of cytoplasm
complete table

number of divisions

number of daughter cells

genetically identical

chromosome number

where occurs

when occurs

role
Mitosis meiosis

1 2
2 4
yes no
same # as parent 1/2 of p.
syn. body cells sex cells
thru life sexual maturity
qrowth repair reproduction