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60 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Where are neural cells produced?
Neural cells are produced in the ventricular zone lining the neural tube.
What do daughter cells differntiate into?
They bocome neurons or glia.
When the Neural Tube seperates, what two directions do they go on?
along the rostal-caudal axis
and...between the dorsal and ventral halves.
What happens in synaptogenesis?
The growth cones respond to the chemical and physical properties of the extracellular envir. in order to reach their destinations.
neurons compete for nerve growth factors and those that fail to botain this stimulation die.
-occurs from the spinal cord and goes towards the forebrain
-not complete until the age of 20
surface areas served by Dorsal Roots of Spinal Segment
Where are Mechanoreceptors found?
skin, blood vessels, internal organs, and joints
What does the somatosensory system do?
give us information about the body senses such as touch, movement and pain
What are olfactory receptors?
What do researchers know about taste coding?
That is is not clear-cut or well understood at all.
Where do protiens come from?
Gene Expression
What is Flavor actually a mixture of?
taste, smell, tactile sensation of food-"mouthfeel", and visual information contributes
What is another name for gustation?
What is sensory Transduction?
Transduction happens when tastants affect the ion flow across the membrane of a taste cell.
Each Papilla is capable of holding how many taste buds?
1-100 taste buds
Where are taste buds located?
mostly on the tounge or soft palate.
Are taste cells regenerative?
Yes taste cells are regenerative.
What is a motor unit?
consists of an alpha motor neuron and all the fibers it controls.(only includes one type of fiber)
Where are alpha motor neurons located?
They are located in
How are muscle contractions controlled?
they are contolled by the firing of action potentials, and the varying amounts fo pressure that are supplied by the firing mechanism.
What is recruitment?
activating more motor units as more load is placed on a muscle.
What part of the body is responsible for reflex movements?
The Spinal Cord because it is designed to protect us from injusry and maintain posture.
What are the types of muscle that the body has?
Smooth muscle(digestive tract) and Striated muscle(skeletal)
What is the Patellar Tendon Reflex?
It tests the integrity of muscle spindle.
What happens in reciprocal inhibition?
the activation of one muscle in an antoagonistic pair inhibits the contraction of the other.
What kind of receptors provide information about the joint position and movement?
the cerebellum is involved in the timing and sequencing of what kind of movements?
Complex Movements
What is the Ventromedial pathway responsible for?
Reflexive Movements
What does the Flocculus control?
The Eyes movements and balance
What does the basil gnaglia do?
it serves a filter for voluntary movement.
HypErkinetic Symptom...?
cause by damage to the basil ganglia, results in involutary movements. "tourettes syndrom"
HypOkinetic Sympton...?
cause by damage to the basil ganglia, results in paucity in movement. "Parkinson's disease."
How many areas are in the Motor Cortex? Name them.
3 main areas, primary cortex, premotor area, supplamentory motor area
What areas of the brain control the decision to move?
Prefrontal and Parietal cortex.
Muscle contraction is caused by
A signal sent to the spinal motor neurons
What is Huntingtons disease?
It produces involuntary jerky movements
What do chemoreceptors respond to?
chemicals... are stimulated by chemicals and send pain signals.
When a mechanoreceptor is stretched what happens?
the ion channel opens and Na+ enters the cell and if threshold is reached and action potential is generated.
What does hte Trigeminal Nerve do?
Carries sensations from mechanoreceptors in the skin of the face, mouth, tongue and dura mater of the brain.
There are four areas of stimulus in the Primary Somatosensory Cortex. What are they?
Area4-light touch
What does the Secondary Somatosensory Cortex do?
it is just a further processor of sensation
What are Pain receptors?
they are actually nocicereceptors-they respond to a variety of stimuli associated to tissue dammage
coordinates sequenced movements, balance, and some forms of learning
What is the result of a hemmorrhage?
Aneurysms that burst; which is a bulge in the arterial lobe.
What kind of strokes are typically fatal?
Hemorrhagic Strokes
What kind of stem cells have the potential to develop into any type of cell in the body?
Stem cells that are undifferentiated.
Whats is NOGO used for?
NOGO is a substance that normally prevents further sprouting by mature axons.
What causes cerebral vascular accidents?
blockages and hemmorhage
What is the coup known as?
The site of the injury when refering to heads
What is the countercoup?
the site that is opposite of the head injury
What kind of brain tumors are 45% of all brain tumors?
Glioma tumors
How does CTBI form?
Forms slowly and is diagnosed way after person is done with sport...(boxers)
Repeated concussions may cause...
slurred speech, memory and personality changes, parkinson's-like syndrom
What is a simple word for Neurocysticercosis?
Brain Worms;spongiform
What is Encephalitis?
inflamation of the brain caused by viral infection
What is Epilepsy?
characterized by repetitive seizures.
What are some treatments for Epilepsy?
Medications that are usually GABA agonists.
What is an Aura?
subjective sensory or motor sensation that signals the onset of a seizure or migraine headache.
What steps lead to a migraine?
the increased blood flow is a reaction to events in the brainstem and nervous system that lead to migrain