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106 Cards in this Set

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Consists of organisms that are too small to be seen clearly without a microscope (a.k.a. microorganisms)
Microbes
Prokaryotes with range in size from .2-10 micrometers in diameter

and unicellular organisms of the kingdom Protista that are 10-100 micrometer range are both
Microorganisms (microbes)
How big (or small) is a micrometer?

These are groups of biological entities that are even smaller than bacteria
1/1,000,000 of a meter
These groups of microbes include:

They are not organisms because they don't have all the requirements for being alive but they DO make ORGANISMS sick
Viruses, Viroids, and Prions
A small particle (.05-.2 micrometers) that come in many different shapes these particles have two parts

genome: The genetic info. can either be DNA or RNA (ds or ss)

capsid: a protein coat that surrounds and protects the genome

Some also have an envelope: a membrane (phospholipid bilayer) that surrounds the capsid
Viruses
The entire function of a ______ is to take control of a host cell to produce more of its particles. A biological hijacking
Viruses
The genetic material of a virus _________ the host cell to make more viruses. Because viruses require a host for their reproduction can't make their own proteins and have no energy conversion mechanisms, they aren't a live.
reprograms
The cell type that a virus infects, or _____, is usually very specific and the _______ _____________, which the virus can infect, are often narrow in range.
Host


Host species
Even bacteria are susceptible to viral infection from ______________
Bacteriophage
Simplier/smaller biological entities. Small fragments of ssRNA (eithe linear or circular) with no protein coat. Like a virus, it takes over the cell that it infects. They are plant pathogens that can infect cirtrus, potatoes, and other crop species.
Viroids
Unusual infectious particles. Protein particles with NO GENETIC MATERIAL. most have been linked to degenerative diseases of nervous tissue especially the brain. Include in these diseases are KURU or scrapie and more recently "mad cow disease"
Prions
The ______is an improperly folded version of a natural protein. The wrongly folded protein seems to cause other copies of the protein to convert from the correct folding pattern into the incorrect form. As the bad copies accumulate, the result in physical changes in the tissue.
Prions
The organisms that make up the two _______ __________ (Bacteria and Archaea) were the first organisms to arise on earth about 3.5 billion years ago). While only about 5000 prokaryotic species have been described, there may be as many as 100-1000 times that number. The Domains are similar in many superficial aspects.
The Prokaryotic Domains
There are many key differences in the prokaryotic domains and these include
enzymes, plasma membrane, and ribosomes
One main distinction between Bacteria and Archaea is the composition of the semi-rigid permeable ____ _____
cell wall
The bacterial cell wall is composed of a complex of structural polysacchrides cross-linke by peptides known as....
peptidoglycan
__________ have cell walls, but they do not contain peptidoglycan
Archaeans
The cell wall of bacteria gives it different types of characteristic shapes

_______ are rod shaped
_______are spherical
_______are helical or corkscrew shaped

These are some shapes but there are many variations to these basic shapes
bacilla

cocci

spirilla
The peptidolycan cell wall of bacteria can be stained by a specific stain known as the _____ ______ (named for Hans Christian Gram, a Danish physician)
Gram Stain
The domain bacteria can be divided into two groups based on the ability to be stained with the gram stain. ______ ______ bacteria ave the cell wall exposed to the enviroment.(have an extra outer membrane). Some bacteria are not stained by the Gram stain so they are ______ __________.
Gram positive


Gram negative
Surrounding the cell walls of some bacteria are either ________ or _______ ___________. Both of these structures are composed of polysaccharides and/or proteins. The capsule or the slime layer both function to attach the bacteria to a surface.
Capsules or slime layers
The major difference between the two:

__________ is highly organized structure that is firmly attached to the cell wall

___________ is much less organized and more loosely attached to the cell wall


Both still function as a protective layer for bacteria
Capsue


slime layer
Another way that baterica attach themselves to a surface (e.g. a host-cell or another bacterium) is vial _____
Pili

(singular is pilus)
About half the bacterial species are capable of motion using rotating _______. These are fillaments that extrend from the membrane of a cell and are used for cellular locomotion. The anchor of the bacterial _____ is an "axle and wheel" arrangement which allows the flagellum to rotate like a propeller. Bacteria with flagella exhibit either very little or no random movement when in a uniform enviroment.
flagella
In a heterogeneous enviroment mobile bacteria demonstrate a behavior known as _____. A movement towards the stimulus is known as positive ______If the movement is away from the stimulus it is known as negative ______.
taxis
The three main types of taxis seen in bacteria are
Chemotaxis, Phototaxis, and Magnetaxis
Movement towards (food) or away from (toxic substances) a chemical stimulus is known as
Chemotaxis
Movement towards or away from light is known as
Phototaxis
Movement towards or away from the earth's magnetic field is known as
Magnetaxis
All of the taxis require an organism that has the ability to sense the stimulus the sensors are usually located in the ____ _______
cell membrane
Some bacteria, especially the bacilli, can form a protective ________ in response to harsh enviromental conditions. These are protective resting structures in which a durable wall surrounds the bacterial chromosome.
endospore
These structures are resistent to dehydration, extreme heat or cold, and most poisons. It will persist until conditions are favorable and then develop into a bacterium
endospores
Some bacteria are able to transfer genetic information between cells by _______ _______. This is the transfer of genetic information (a plasmid) between two bacteria via a speial sex pilus.
bacterial conjugation
This is a small double-stranded ring of DNA that carries extrachromosomal genes in some bacteria.
Plasmid
Bacteria have evolved to live in almost every possible enviromental condition found on earth including some very extreme conditions. While the range of conditions that the domains bacteria and archaea can live in is large, the conditions a single species requires may be specific.
In order for these domains to be able to occupy so many different ecological niches, they have had to develop the ability to use many different energy sources.
Some bacterial species are autotrophic and derive their energy from inorganic chemicals this is
Chemosynthesis
Other autotrophic bacteria, like ______ obtain their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis
cyanobacteria
There are also heterotrophic bacteria that must have an organic food source for their energy. This may occur in the presence of oxygen (aerobic) or without oxygen (anaerobic)
oxygen (aerobic)

without oxygen (anaerobic)
In some cases the food is obtained through a _____ relationship in exchange for some other commodity
symbiotic relationship
While most bacteria are harmless (or even beneficial) to humans and other organisms, some are ________. Some diseases caused by these types of bacteria are :

Gonorrhea, Syphilis, Tuberculosis, Lyme Disease
Pathogenic
Because of the wide spread use (and misuse) of antibiotics, some pathogenic bacteria have developed
antibiotic resistence
While the bacteria occupy many diverse habitats some of the more extreme enviroments are the realms of the Archaea. Some examples include
Halophiles (salt loving)
Thermophiles (heat loving)
(salt loving) that inhabit the extremely salty Dead Sea and Great Salt Lake
Halophiles (archaea)
(heat loving) including thermoacidophiles, which live in acidic hot springs o in the hot (105 C) water surrounding deep-sea volcanic vents.
Thermophiles (archaea)
The organisms found in this kingdom are all eukaroytes and most are single-celled for most of their life cycle
Kingdom Protista
The Eukaryotic differences
Nuclues with a double membrane
Organelles
2 or more chromosomes (DNA + Protein)
Since the organisms of the kingdom Protista are eukaryotic cells, they are clearly different from the Bacteria and Archaea.
The differences between the protists and the rest of the eukaryotes are not quite as clear.
Most protists can be organized into eight general groups: However there is a good deal of unvertainty about the evolution of these groups
Range of nutritional methods:

Plant-like protists-algae and phytoplankton-autotrophic )photosynthetic)

Fungus-like protists-molds- heterotriphic (decomposers)

Animal-like protists - protozoans- heterotrophic (hunters and symbiotic)
These are the photosynthetic eukaryotes at the base of most aquatic food webs.

They are responsible for most of the photosynthesis (and most of the oxygen production) of the planet
phytoplankton
These are heterotrophic protists, which actively seek and ingest their food (either food particles or other organisms)
Protozoans
(Chromists) Division Oomycota

-they form a small division
-filamentous bodies
-mobile flagellated gametes

A common ___ ____ with economic importance is downy mildew.
water molds
(Chromists) Division Chrysophyta

-May be freshwater or marine
-Have glasslike "shells" with perforation to allow for exchange of substances
-About 5600 described living species and more than 35000 extinct species (Based on shell morphology)
Diatoms
(Chromists) Division Phaephyta

-Marine
-Deep water to tidal
-"Brown" color caused by accessory pigments
-Cell wall has a added polysaccharides
-Giant kelp forest
-Gas-bladders to keep the plant extending toward the surface
Brown Algae
(Alveolates) Division Pyrrophyta

-most are marine
-2 flagella, one at the end and one in an equatorial groove
-May have cellullose cell wall

Members of this group are responsible for RED TIDES which result in massive fish kills along the Gulf Coast.
Dinoflagellates
(Alveolates) Phylum Apicomplexa

-All are parasites which have a mobile state called a sporozoite Including: Plasmodium that causes malaris and Toxoplasma that vectors through cats
Apicoplexans (Sporozoans)
(Alveolates) Phylum Ciliophora

-Most species are solitary freshwater
-Use CILIA for movement and feeding

Most complex of the protozoa with an internal structure that includes an oral groove and anal pore and two types of nuclei
Ciliates
short hair-like filaments that are made of protein. May be a uniform covering of the organism or can be localized in patches.
cilia
The two different nuclei in ciliates have different functions

The ____ handles all the day to day business

The _____ functions in sexual reproduction
Macronucleus

Micronucleus
The two basic types of slime molds have
-a mobile feeding stage

-a sationary reproductive stage with a fruiting body that produces spores.
Slime Molds (Division Myxomycota)

They are also known as plasmodial slime molds. This name comes from the plasmodium which is the mobile feeding stage of this organism life cycle. in the mobile stage the cells go through mitosis but not cytokinesis. The result is an acellular organism which looks like a very large multi nucleated singular cell
Acellular Slime Molds
In harsh enviromental conditions (dry) the _____________ forms a mound and produces a stalked fruiting body that produces haploid spores.
plasmodium
(Slime modes) Division Acrasiomycota

-They have a two part life cycle in which the cells of many "individuals" form an interactive agregate which is almost multicellular
-Individual solitary cells characterize the mobile feeding stage.
-Amoeboid movement using pseudopodia
_During the times of enviromental stress, a signal causes the cells aggregate into a pseudoplasmodium but remain individual cells.
-the aggregate of cells is still emobile and migrates to a suitable spot fo rthe fomation of the fruiting body.
Cellular Slime modes
(Division Euglenophyta)
-Most are freshwater
-Have 1-3 flagella
-Primarily photosynthetic but can switch to heterotrophic in the dark
-Lack a rigid cell wall
-Have a potoreceptor called an eyespot
-Named after EUGLENA
euglenoids
(Division Rhodophyta)

-Mainly marine but some fresh water
-Deep water
-Red color caused by accessory pigments
-Cell was has added polysaccharides
-Some species are held upright by CaCO3
-Supports the deep water food web
-Used in cosmetics, ice cream, paint, sushi
Red Algae
(Phylum Sarmasttigophora

-One flagellum
-Both Free living and symbiotic

Some of the sumbiotic species are parasitic. Including TRYPANOSOMA (causing sleeping sickness) and GIARDIA (causing diarrhea)
Zooflagellates
(Phylum Saromastigophora)

-Also known as amoebae
-No visible special structures for movement instead move and enfulf food using pseodopodia.
-Most are free living through some can be parasitic. Amoebic dysentery
-Some species build protective shells
Foraminiferans or forams make CaCO3 shells
Radiolarians and Heliozoans make glass-like silica shells
Sarcodines
(Division Chlorophyta and/or Charophytes

-Some marine and many freshwater species
-Unicellular and colony forms
-Typical chloroplasts
-PROBABLY an ancestor of land plants
-cell wall only has cellulose
Green Algae
The Kingdom _____ consits of organisms that are eukaryotic andmainly multicellular. They are all heterotrophic decomposers taht obtain their food by absorption.
Kingdom Fungi
Most members of Kingdom Fungi have several structural elements in common:
Mycelium
Hyphae (hypha)
Septa (septa)
Chitin
Spores
The feeding network of a fungus. This network may be very large but is usually underground or within the surface of a decaying layer
Mycelium
The mycelium is composed of a woven mesh of _________. (threadlike filaments of a fungus)
hyphae
Hyphae are the building structures of mycelium. they consist of a tubular cell wall containing __________ (a structural polysaccharide of modified sugars) surrounding a plasma membrane and cytoplasm
chitin
In some fungi (coenocytic fungi) ther are no separate cells and many nuclei are in a common cytoplasm. In other types of fungi (dikaryotic) the nuclei are partitioned into twos by ___________. The separation is incomplete so that the cytoplasm is contiguous bu tthe nuclei are kept apart.
septa
The general life cycle of a fungi involves the production of _________. For fungi, this is a haploid cell, which can grow directly into a hyphae. While all fungi use absorption to obtain their food, there are three variations with respect to the food type.
spores
Decomposers of dead material (most fungi fall into this group)
saprobes
Two types of symbiotes

_________Fungi that live on living organisms. (Dutch elm disease, corn smut, athletes foot, jock itch, yeast infections.

__________Fungi that live interdependently with photosynthetic organisms (lichens and mycorrhizae)
Parasitic

Mutualistic
_________are formed of a symbiotic relationship between a fungal species and either a cyanbacteria or a unicellular photosynthetic eukaryote. This partnership requires very little in the way of external nutrients and can often be found growing on bare rock or dead wood
Lichens
Lichens are often the first organisms to appear in the ______ _________ of a community
Primary succession
___________ are a symbiotic relationship between fungi and the roots of a plant
Mycorrhizae
The fungi help send the plant water, minerals, and nutrients (especially phosphorus containing compounds). In exchange, the fungus absorbs some of the sugars the plant produces..
There have been over 100,000 fungal species identified and more are added each year.
Four of the major divisions of fungi are:
Chytrids-Division Chytridomycota
Zygote Fungi-Division Zygomycota
Sac fungi-Division Ascomycota
Club Fungi-Division Basidiomycota
An additional mixed species Division is almost part of the kingdom Fungi that is..
Imperfect fungi (Division Deuteromycota)
The two main classification criteria for these divisions are the presence(or absence) of the ____ in the fungi and the differences in the ______________
septa and sexual life cycle
-Characterized by swimming flagellated spores (similar to water molds)

-some species of chytrids arel inked to parasitic infection with amphibians
The chytrids
-Named for the zygospore, which has a thick cell wall. The zygospore is produced from the fusion of two different haploid mating types.
-usually only goes through asexual reproduction, involving haploid spores which grow directly into sproangia (spore producers).
-no septa present
-include black bread mold and dung fungus
The Zygote Fungi
-Named foro the sac or ascus, which contains several haploid spores
-both sexual and asexual reproduction are common
-septa present
-include penicillin fungus, most yeast, powder mildew of rye, and Dutch elm disease and truffles
The Sac Fungi
-named for the "club" shaped reproductive structure called a BASIDIA which produces basidiospores
-Usually repruduces sexually
-septa present
-The mycelium of this group may grow very large and occasionally produce a FAIRY RING at the circumference
-imcludes the common mushroom and relatives, also shelf fungi, puffballs, and smuts
The Club Fungi
Named for the apparent lack of sexual reproduction in the life cycle.
-septa present
-includes athletes foot fungus, and blue cheese fungus
Imperfect Fungi
-Eukaryotic
-Multicellular
-Heterotrophic
-Ingenstive method of digestion
-Sexual Reproduction
-No cell wall
-Rapid response to stimuli
Kingdom Animalia
As animals evolved they developed more complex and organized bodies. Some of these increases in complexity include:
-cellular specialization
-body plan
-cephalization
-body cavity
-segmetation
-digestive system
this is teh concentration of the nervous tissue (including the "brain" and sensory organs) into a defined region (head) of the body
Cephalization
This is the body design which is similar repeating units are present
Segmentation
cellular specialization leads to the development of _____, which then can lead to the combonation of tissues into an ______. These may then become arranges into an _____ _____.
Tissues

Organ

Organ system
These are specialized cells with a common structure and function that are grouped together
Tissues
These are centers of bodily functions, which are usually made up of different tissues
Organs
Groups of two or more organs that function together to perform a common task (e.g. digestion, gas exchange, reproduction)
Organ systems
The presence or absence of tissues in an organism defines the first separation of a group from the rest of the animals.
....
(Phylum Porifera)

-Sessile - non-moving
-Filter feeders
-May reproduce sexually or asexually by budding
-Most species have an asymmetric body plan designed for water filtration
-Lack tissue structure but have specialized cells (see fig 22-4)
Sponges
Three types of specialized cells are found in the sponge phylum
Epithelial cells
Collar cells
Amoeboid cells
outer covering layer (like a skin)
Make up and regulate the pores
Epithelial cells
nner layer which pumps water through the sponge using flagella and filters out the food
Collar cells
mobile cells between the two layers that ingest the collected food
-Responsible for reprodution -Secretion of skeletal structure of spicules.
Amoeboid cells
The lack of tissues in sponges also result in the asymmetric body plan. All other animal phyla have both defined tissues and body plan or
Symmetry
indicates that a geometric plane could be drawn through an organism such that the halves of the organism are “mirror” images of each other.

Two types of symmetry are seen
Symmetry


radial symmetry and bilateral symmetry
Round body plan

Animals have a top/bottom but NO right/left front/back
Radial symmetry
Body plan with a left and a right side
Also means a back (dorsal) and front (ventral) surface can be determined
Bilatteral symmetry