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43 Cards in this Set

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parenchyma
Botany. the fundamental tissue of plants, composed of thin-walled cells able to divide.
epidermis
the outer, nonvascular, nonsensitive layer of the skin, covering the true skin or corium.
cuticle
The strip of hardened skin at the base and sides of a fingernail or toenail.
vascular tissue
plant tissue consisting of ducts or vessels, that, in the higher plants, forms the system (vascular system) by which sap is conveyed through the plant.
xylem
a compound tissue in vascular plants that helps provide support and that conducts water and nutrients upward from the roots, consisting of tracheids, vessels, parenchyma cells, and woody fibers.
tracheids
An elongated, water-conducting cell in xylem, one of the two kinds of tracheary elements. Tracheids have pits where the cell wall is modified into a thin membrane, across which water flows from tracheid to tracheid. The cells die when mature, leaving only their lignified cell walls. Tracheids are found in all vascular plants
phloem
the part of a vascular bundle consisting of sieve tubes, companion cells, parenchyma, and fibers and forming the food-conducting tissue of a plant.
primary growth
Growth in vascular plants resulting from the production of primary tissues by a primary meristem. Elongation of the plant body is usually a consequence of primary growth.
root cap
A thimble-shaped mass of cells that covers and protects the root tip
secondary growth
Growth in vascular plants from production of secondary tissues by a lateral meristem, usually resulting in wider branches and stems
vascular cambium
A cylindrical layer of cambium that runs through the stem of a plant that undergoes secondary growth. The vascular cambium produces vascular tissues, new xylem on its interior side and new phloem on its exterior side. All woody plants and most eudicots have vascular cambium.
cork cambium
A lateral ring of meristematic tissue found in woody seed plants, producing cork on the outside of the ring and parenchyma on the inside of the ring
root
a part of the body of a plant that develops, typically, from the radicle and grows downward into the soil, anchoring the plant and absorbing nutriment and moisture.
cortex
The outer layer of an internal organ or body structure, as of the kidney or adrenal gland.
The outer layer of gray matter that covers the surface of the cerebral hemisphere.
Botany The region of tissue in a root or stem lying between the epidermis and the vascular tissue.
endodermis
specialized tissue in the roots and stems of vascular plants, composed of a single layer of modified parenchyma cells forming the inner boundary of the cortex.
stele
the central cylinder or cylinders of vascular and related tissue in the stem,
leaf
one of the expanded, usually green organs borne by the stem of a plant.
2. any similar or corresponding lateral outgrowth of a stem
photosynthesis
the synthesis of complex organic materials, esp. carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide, water, and inorganic salts, using sunlight as the source of energy and with the aid of chlorophyll and associated pigments.
stoma
any of various small apertures, esp. one of the minute orifices or slits in the epidermis of leaves, stems, etc., through which gases are exchanged.
guard cells
Any fixture or attachment designed to protect or secure against injury, soiling, or defacement, theft or loss
vascular bundle
a longitudinal arrangement of strands of xylem and phloem, and sometimes cambium, that forms the fluid-conducting channels of vascular tissue in the rhizomes, stems, and leaf veins of vascular plants, the arrangement varying with the type of plant.
auxin
a class of substances that in minute amounts regulate or modify the growth of plants, esp. root formation, bud growth, and fruit and leaf drop.
gibberellins
Any of several plant hormones, such as gibberellic acid, used to promote stem elongation.
cytokinins
Any of a class of plant hormones that promote cell division and growth and delay the senescence of leaves.
ethylene
A colorless, flammable gas that occurs naturally in certain plants and can be obtained from petroleum and natural gas. As a plant hormone, it ripens and colors fruit, and it is manufactured for use in agriculture to speed these processes
abscisic acid
a growth-regulating plant hormone, C15H20O4, that promotes dormancy and the aging and abscission of leaves
sepals
One of the usually separate, green parts that surround and protect the flower bud and extend from the base of a flower after it has opened
petals
One of the often brightly colored parts of a flower immediately surrounding the reproductive organs; a division of the corolla.
pistil
the ovule-bearing or seed-bearing female organ of a flower, consisting when complete of ovary, style, and stigma
carpel
One of the structural units of a pistil, representing a modified, ovule-bearing leaf.
double fertilization
the fertilization process characteristic of flowering plants, in which one sperm cell of a pollen grain fertilizes an egg cell while a second fuses with two polar nuclei to produce a triploid body that gives rise to the endosperm.
zygote
the cell produced by the union of two gametes, before it undergoes cleavage.
endosperm
nutritive matter in seed-plant ovules, derived from the embryo sac.
seed
the fertilized, matured ovule of a flowering plant, containing an embryo or rudimentary plant.
embryo
the young of a viviparous animal, esp. of a mammal, in the early stages of development within the womb, in humans up to the end of the second month.
seed coat
the outer integument of a seed
cotyledons
Botany A leaf of the embryo of a seed plant, which upon germination either remains in the seed or emerges, enlarges, and becomes green. Also called seed leaf.
Anatomy One of the lobules constituting the uterine side of the mammalian placenta, consisting mainly of a rounded mass of villi
hypocotyl
the part of a plant embryo directly below the cotyledons, forming a connection with the radicle
radicle
a. the lower part of the axis of an embryo; the primary root
phototrpism
Growth or movement of a sessile organism toward or away from a source of light
gravitropism
oriented growth with respect to the force of gravity
thigmotropism
oriented growth of an organism in response to mechanical contact, as a plant tendril coiling around a string support.
photoperiodism
the response, as affecting growth or reproduction, of an organism to the length of exposure to light in a 24-hour period.