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25 Cards in this Set

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What does a nucleotide consist of?
A pentose sugar (either ribose or deoxyribose), one or more phosphate groups and a nitrogen containing base.
Nucleotides are the subunits of:
Nucleic acids (what are their subunits)?
Which bonds in nucleotides release a lot of energy?
The covalent P-O phosphate bonds. (These release what?)
What are the names for the two types of nucleotide bases?
Purine, Pyrimidine
Adenine
Purine
-goes with thymine
Guanine
Purine
- goes with cytosine
Pyrimidine
uracil
Cytosine
Pyrimidine
- goes with guanine
Thymine
Pyrimidine
- goes with adenine
How do nucleotides join?
The 3Carbon on one nucleic acid has an OH and condenses with the phosphate on another nucleic acid (phosphate on the 5th carbon).
What kind of backbone do these successive nucleotide chains form?
Sugar Phosphate
What is uracil in RNA paired with?
Adenine
Why are lipids insoluble?
Nonpolar covalent bonds of hydrogen and carbons in lipids
How are fats and oils made?
Glycerol + 3 fatty acid molecules condense to form 3H20s
What kind of linkage is in glycerold-fatty acid condensation?
Ester
What does a phospholipid consist of?
Hydrocarbon chains, glycerol (hydrophobic) and a hydrophilic phosphate choline head.
What causes phospholipids to bond into a membrane?
Hydrogen bonding and hydrophobid interactions
What influences the folding of proteins?
Sequences of amino acids
Describe the linkage of polypeptides
The O from the COO group breaks off and joins 2 Hs from the NH3 to form H20 and the two join.
How many types of amino acids are there?
20
How is the secondary structure of a protein mainly determined?
hydrogen bonds
What kinds of proteins can insert into phospholipid membranes?
Alpha helices with hydrophobid side chains
What is special about proline?
It fits in neither sheets nor alpha helices because it can't make hydrogen bonds
What are four properties that determine tertiary structure?
Disulfide bridges
Hydrophobic aggregation of R groups
Non covalent!!!
Ionic interactions
Where do sugar modifications take place on phospholipids?
In the golgi