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125 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
exocrine glands
make secretions, and deliver products to a surface or a lumen through a passageway or duct
epidermal derivatives
pockets of epidermis extend into the dermis, producing specialized structures; include: hair, nails, glands
hair
produced w/ in epidermal pockets called hair follicles; protect functions; retaining body heat in cold weather, shading and cooling te scalp when it is hot, protecting the head from impact, eyelashes and eyebrow hairs, keep debris form reaching the eye; hairs at the entrance to the nose prevents debris and insects from entering
life cycle of a hair
growth stage 3-5 years; then stops growing (resting stage) 1-2 years; then it is pushed out and replaced by a new hair
lanugo
in utero, babies have a coat of fine hair which is usually shed and replaced by vellus around 7 months of fetal development
vernix caseosa
the skin is covered by a whitish, oily, waterproof layer secreted by the sebaceous gland, in utero
vellus
fine, nearly invisible hair
terminal hair
thick, darker hair found on the eyebrows, scalp, and pubic regions of an adult
arrector pili
attache to each hair follicle, and when the muscle cell contracts the hair is more upright
nails
primarily hard keratin; protect the distal end of the digits, allow you to grasp small objects, and aid in holding, climbing, and scratching
nail body
the visible nail
nail matrix
the basal layer that produces the nail
integumentary system
functions- protection, temperature regulation, sensation, and production of the active form of vitamin D
epidermis
epithelial tissue, no blood supply; visible and on the surface; 4-5 layers of stratified squamous epithelium; thicker on palms and soles of feet
adrenogenital syndrome
hypersecretion of androgens from the adrenal cortex in which secondary sex characteristics develop early in male children, and female children are masculinized
basement membrane
a special extracellular matrix that separates the epidermis and dermis, and regulates what passes between them
keratinocytes
most abundant cells of the epidermis. as they mature, they accumulate excessive amounts of fibrous protein keratin and they are linked tightly together by proteinaceous desomosomes to form a barrier
keratin
insoluble, long-lived, also in hair and nails
merkel cells
these combine w/ sensory nerves to form the sensory receptors for touch- located where the epidermis meets the dermis
langerhaus cells
macrophages that migrate into the epidermis from the bone marrow
melanocytes
in the basal layer; produce the brownish pigment melanin
tanning
the visible accelerated accumulation of melanin
burning
when the amount of UV light overwhelms the melanin defense, damaging cells and their DNA, and stimulating the production of p53 protein
basal, spiny, granular, clear, and cornified/horny
layers of the epidermis
basal layer
stem cells; the lowest layer of cells; closest to the nutrient supply diffusing from the connective tissue below; division of these cells is stimulated by friction on the surface; cells are produced to replace cells being rubbed off
TGF-beta (transforming growth factor beta)
made by the stem cells themselves (an autocrine factor)
KGF (keratinocyte growth factor)
also called FGF-7 (fibroblast growth factor 7) a paracrine factor made by the fibroblasts of the dermis below
spiny layer
above the basal layer, the rate of mitosis rapidly decreases, in part due to lack of adequate nutrients
basement membrane
a special extracellular matrix that separates the epidermis and dermis, and regulates what passes between them
granular layer
the cells are getting flatter and dying- nuclei and organelles begin to break down; at the same time, the plasma membrane thickens, cells continue to produce keratin and cells releases vesicles filled w/ a waterproofing glycolipid outside the cell
keratinocytes
most abundant cells of the epidermis. as they mature, they accumulate excessive amounts of fibrous protein keratin and they are linked tightly together by proteinaceous desomosomes to form a barrier
clear layer
flat, clear, dead cells; this layer is only found in areas of thick skin
keratin
insoluble, long-lived, also in hair and nails
merkel cells
these combine w/ sensory nerves to form the sensory receptors for touch- located where the epidermis meets the dermis
langerhaus cells
macrophages that migrate into the epidermis from the bone marrow
melanocytes
in the basal layer; produce the brownish pigment melanin
tanning
the visible accelerated accumulation of melanin
burning
when the amount of UV light overwhelms the melanin defense, damaging cells and their DNA, and stimulating the production of p53 protein
basal, spiny, granular, clear, and cornified/horny
layers of the epidermis
basal layer
stem cells; the lowest layer of cells; closest to the nutrient supply diffusing from the connective tissue below; division of these cells is stimulated by friction on the surface; cells are produced to replace cells being rubbed off
TGF-beta (transforming growth factor beta)
made by the stem cells themselves (an autocrine factor)
KGF (keratinocyte growth factor)
also called FGF-7 (fibroblast growth factor 7) a paracrine factor made by the fibroblasts of the dermis below
spiny layer
above the basal layer, the rate of mitosis rapidly decreases, in part due to lack of adequate nutrients
granular layer
the cells are getting flatter and dying- nuclei and organelles begin to break down; at the same time, the plasma membrane thickens, cells continue to produce keratin and cells releases vesicles filled w/ a waterproofing glycolipid outside the cell
clear layer
flat, clear, dead cells; this layer is only found in areas of thick skin
exocrine glands
make secretions, and deliver products to a surface or a lumen through a passageway or duct
epidermal derivatives
pockets of epidermis extend into the dermis, producing specialized structures; include: hair, nails, glands
hair
produced w/ in epidermal pockets called hair follicles; protect functions; retaining body heat in cold weather, shading and cooling te scalp when it is hot, protecting the head from impact, eyelashes and eyebrow hairs, keep debris form reaching the eye; hairs at the entrance to the nose prevents debris and insects from entering
life cycle of a hair
growth stage 3-5 years; then stops growing (resting stage) 1-2 years; then it is pushed out and replaced by a new hair
lanugo
in utero, babies have a coat of fine hair which is usually shed and replaced by vellus around 7 months of fetal development
vernix caseosa
the skin is covered by a whitish, oily, waterproof layer secreted by the sebaceous gland, in utero
vellus
fine, nearly invisible hair
terminal hair
thick, darker hair found on the eyebrows, scalp, and pubic regions of an adult
arrector pili
attache to each hair follicle, and when the muscle cell contracts the hair is more upright
nails
primarily hard keratin; protect the distal end of the digits, allow you to grasp small objects, and aid in holding, climbing, and scratching
nail body
the visible nail
nail matrix
the basal layer that produces the nail
integumentary system
functions- protection, temperature regulation, sensation, and production of the active form of vitamin D
epidermis
epithelial tissue, no blood supply; visible and on the surface; 4-5 layers of stratified squamous epithelium; thicker on palms and soles of feet
adrenogenital syndrome
hypersecretion of androgens from the adrenal cortex in which secondary sex characteristics develop early in male children, and female children are masculinized
exocrine glands
make secretions, and deliver products to a surface or a lumen through a passageway or duct
epidermal derivatives
pockets of epidermis extend into the dermis, producing specialized structures; include: hair, nails, glands
hair
produced w/ in epidermal pockets called hair follicles; protect functions; retaining body heat in cold weather, shading and cooling te scalp when it is hot, protecting the head from impact, eyelashes and eyebrow hairs, keep debris form reaching the eye; hairs at the entrance to the nose prevents debris and insects from entering
life cycle of a hair
growth stage 3-5 years; then stops growing (resting stage) 1-2 years; then it is pushed out and replaced by a new hair
lanugo
in utero, babies have a coat of fine hair which is usually shed and replaced by vellus around 7 months of fetal development
vernix caseosa
the skin is covered by a whitish, oily, waterproof layer secreted by the sebaceous gland, in utero
vellus
fine, nearly invisible hair
terminal hair
thick, darker hair found on the eyebrows, scalp, and pubic regions of an adult
arrector pili
attache to each hair follicle, and when the muscle cell contracts the hair is more upright
nails
primarily hard keratin; protect the distal end of the digits, allow you to grasp small objects, and aid in holding, climbing, and scratching
nail body
the visible nail
nail matrix
the basal layer that produces the nail
integumentary system
functions- protection, temperature regulation, sensation, and production of the active form of vitamin D
epidermis
epithelial tissue, no blood supply; visible and on the surface; 4-5 layers of stratified squamous epithelium; thicker on palms and soles of feet
adrenogenital syndrome
hypersecretion of androgens from the adrenal cortex in which secondary sex characteristics develop early in male children, and female children are masculinized
epidermal derivates
pockets of epidermis extend into the dermis; producing specializes structures; include: nails, hair, and glands
hair
produced w/ in epidermal pockets called hair follicles; protective functions retaining body heat in cold weather, shading, and cooling the scalp when it is hot, protecting the head from impact, eyelashes and eyebrow hairs keep debris from reaching the eye; hairs at the entrance to the nose prevents debris and insects from entering
life cycle of a hair
growth stage 3-5 years; then stops growing 1-2 years; then it is pushed out and replaced by a new hair
lanugo
in utero, babies have a coat of fine hair which is usually shed and replaced by vellus around 7 months of fetal development
vernix caseosa
the skin is covered by a whitish, oily, waterproof layer secreted by the sebaceous gland, in utero
vellus
fine, nearly invisible hair
terminal hair
thick, darker hair found on the eyebrows, scalp, and pubic regions of an adult
arrector pili
attached to each hair follicle, and when the muscle cell contracts the hair is more upright
nails
primarily hard keratin, protect the distal end of the digits, allow you to grasp small objects, and aid in holding, climbing, and scratching
nail body
the visible nail
nail matrix
the basal layer that produces the nail
integumentary system
functions-protection, temperature regulation, sensation, and production of the active form of vitamin D
epidermis
epithelial tissue, no blood supply; visible and on the surface; 4-5 layers of stratified squamous epithelium; thicker on palms and soles of feet
basement membrane
a special extracellular matrix that separates the epidermis and dermis, and regulates what passes between them
keratinocytes
most abundant cells of the epidermis; as they mature, they accumulate excessive amounts of fibrous protein keratin and they are proteinaceous desmosomes to form a barrier
keratin
insoluble, long-lived, also in hair and nails
merkel cells
these combine w/ sensory nerves to form te sensory receptors for touch- located where the epidermis meets the dermis
langerhaus cells
macrophages that migrate into the epidermis from the bone marrow
melanocytes
in the basal layer; produce the brownish pigment melanin
tanning
the visible, accelerated accumulation of melanin
burning
when the amount of UV light overwhelms the melanin defense, damaging cells and their DNA, and stimulating the production of p53 protein
basal, spiny, granular, clear, and cornified/horny
layers of the epidermis
basal layer
stem cells; the lowest layer of cells; closest to the nutrient supply diffusing form connective tissue below, division of these cells is stimulated by friction on the surface; cells are produced to replace cells being rubbed off
TGF-beta (transforming growth factor beta)
made by the stem cells themselves (an autocrine factor)
KGF (keratinocyte growth factor)
also called FGF-7 (fibroblast growth factor 7) a paracrine factor made by the fibroblast of the dermis below
spiny layer
above the basal layer, the rate of mitosis rapidly decreases, in part due to lack of adequate nutrients
granular layer
the cells are getting flatter and dying- nuclei and organelles begin to break down; at the same time, the plasma membrane thickens, cells continue to produce keratin and cells releases vesicles glycolipid outside the cell
clear layer
flat, clear, deadcells; this layer is only found in areas of thick skin
cornified/horny layer
about 20-30 layers of flattened cells; it is all dead cells, essentially husks of keratin, glued together by keratohyaline
dermis
connective tissue below the epidermis; lots of collagen fibers that give it strength and durability; the primary cells are fibroblast and macrophages
hypodermis
below the dermis, that is a continuation of the dermis and is commonly included w/ the skin, although it is not part of the skin itself
papillary layer
has stubby projections called dermal papillae; these house capillaries, and sensors for pain and touch; folds in the layer in the palm and sole called dermal ridges produce folds in the overlying epidermis known as epidermal ridges or fingerprints
reticular layer
made of dense irregular connective tisse; the extracellular matrix of the dermis contains not only collagen but also significant amounts of elastin and reticular fibers
tension or cleavage lines
the collagen and other fibers in the dermis tend to align in groups
flexure lines
repeated folding of the skin in joint areas results in permanent folds
free nerve endings
react to pain, itching, and temperature
hair follicle receptor
encircling hair follicles- light, touch, and movement
Pacinian Corpuscles
vibration (quick deep pressure)
Miessner's Corpuscles
light touch and two-point discrimination
Ruffini's end organs
continuous deep pressure
hypodermis
below the dermis, that is a continuation of the dermis and is commonly included w/ the skin, although it is not part of the skin itself
papillary layer
has stubby projections called dermal papillae; these house capillaries, and sensors for pain and touch; folds in the layer in the palm and sole called dermal ridges produce folds in the overlying epidermis known as epidermal ridges or fingerprints
reticular layer
made of dense irregular connective tisse; the extracellular matrix of the dermis contains not only collagen but also significant amounts of elastin and reticular fibers
tension or cleavage lines
the collagen and other fibers in the dermis tend to align in groups
flexure lines
repeated folding of the skin in joint areas results in permanent folds
free nerve endings
react to pain, itching, and temperature
hair follicle receptor
encircling hair follicles- light, touch, and movement
Pacinian Corpuscles
vibration (quick deep pressure)
Miessner's Corpuscles
light touch and two-point discrimination
Ruffini's end organs
continuous deep pressure