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43 Cards in this Set

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The region of the stem where the leaf is attached to the stem.
The flattened portion of the leaf.
The stemlike structure that connects the blade to the stem, usually has a bud at the base.
Small blades attached to one petiole. All of them on the same petiole = 1 leaf.
Compound leaf?
Many leaflets attached to one petiole that came from one bud.
Simple Leaf?
A petiole with only one blade attached to it.
The arrangement of veins in a leaf.
The process of using chloroplasts and light energy from the sun to manufacture carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water.
Guard Cell?
Crescent shaped cells that contain chloroplasts and a pair surrounds an opening called a stoma.
Pores that open and close that allows gases in and out of the leaf.
The evaporation of water from leaves.
Result of loss of turgor pressure, lacking water.
Parlisade mesophyll.
Long, narrow cells near the upper Epidermis where photosynthesis occurs.
Spongy Mesophyll.
Loosely, packed cells with many air spaces between them, where photosynthesis occurs.
Be able to label a cross section of a leaf.
Who was Darwin?
A naturalist. He formed the theory of natural selection.
Natural Selection?
Organisms with favorable variations survive and reproduce at a greater rate, survival of the fittest. Species would compete for resources, food, etc.
Remains or traces of organisms that lived long ago. Fossils are found in sedimentary rock.
Sedimentary rock formation?
Bits of broken rock and pieces of decaying organisms are squeezed together by pressure and harden into rock. It is formed by layers.
A process by which existing species change or branch into new species.
Homologous Structures?
Structures in different species that have the same evolutionary origin.
Vestigial Organs?
Useless organs.
An organism in the very early stages of growth.
A formation of a new species due to natural selection. The selection will operate differently in different environments.
Reproductive Isolation?

Geographic Isolation?
- The division or separation of a single breeding population by a physical barrier such as a mountain range. Leads to speciation. Ex: Grand Canyon.

- A barrier to interbreeding cause by varied breeding times. Frogs - some breed in spring, others fall.
Adaptive radiation?
Evolution of many diverse species from a single ancestral species. Ex: Finches on Galapagos Islands.
Convergent Evolution?
A type of evolution in which unrelated species produce descendants with similar traits.
Stabilizing Selection?
A process that maintains traits that are successful for an organism in its environment.
2 Theories on how fast Evo occurs:

Graduated Path?

Punctuated Equilibrium?
- Small changes over a long period of time.

- Stays the same for a long time, then there are some quick changes.
How did life originate?
The earth was like the moon, hot gassy air. Chemical reactions happened in ocean. Reactions created first organisms. The power source of the reactions came from uv light, lightning, and volcanic heat.
Were the first living organisms auto or heterotrophs?
What happened the the heterotrophs?
They ran out of food to eat and so autotrophs evolved.
Who was Miller?
An American scientist who put water and some gases into a flask. He recreated the energy sources. Amino acids were found.
Who were Oparin and Haldane?
They came up with the theory on how the earth began.
What were the 4 eras?
- Precambrian
- Paleozoic
- Mesozoic
- Cenozoic
What characterized the Precambrian era?
Single celled organisms.
The Paleozoic?
Lots of growth in small amount of time. Fish, plants, insects, amphibians, reptiles.
The Mesozoic?
Reptiles dominant, flowering plants, birds.
The Cenozoic?
Mammals. Primates appeared.
What are the 5 kingdoms?
1. Monera
2. Protista
3. Animalia
4. Fungi
5. Plantae
What is Binomial Nomenculture?
It's the 2 part method of naming a species. It goes genus, species. The genus is the large group of animals, the species is a specific type.
How should the genus and species be written?
Homo sapien (underlining optional)
What are the levels of Classification?
1. Kingdom
2. Phylum
3. Order
4. Family
5. Genus
6. Species