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36 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is a zygote?
fertilized egg cell, the first cell of a new individual
How many chromosomes are there in human somatic cells?
46
2 sets of 23
Define what happens in Anaphase?
-centromeres divide
-two chromatids (somes) move toward opposite poles
-spindle fibers shorten
Define Mitosis.
the process during cell division in which the nucleus of the cell is divided into two nuclei
-each nucleus ends up with the same number and kinds for chromosomes as the origional cell
what are sex chromosomes?
one of the 23 pairs of human chromosomes, that determine the sex of the individual
What occurs in plant cells, with rigid cell walls?
the form a cell plate by vesicles the fuse in the golgi apparatus instead
What is chromosome?
as a eukaryotic cell prepares to divide, the DNA and the protiens associated with the DNA coil into this structure.
What occurs during cytokinesis?
-cytoplasm of cell is divided in half
-cellmembrane grows to enclose each cell, forming two seperate cells
What happens during Telophase?
-nuclear envelope forms around the chromosomes at each pole
-chromosomes at each pole uncoil
-spindle dissolves
-mitosis complete
Define disjunction.
when the chromosome and the homologue seperate.
Define interphase.
-first three phases of the cycle, where a cell spends 90% of its time
-preparation for the nucleus to divide
What happens during the Second Growth Phase (G2)?
-mirotobules are assembled (used to move chromosomes during mitosis)
What happens during the Synthesis Phase (S)?
-DNA is copied
-at the end, each chromosome is 2 cromotids attached at the centromere
What happens at the DNA synthesis checkpoint (G2)?
-DNA replication is checked at this point by repair protiens
-prepares for mitosis
What happens in the first growth phase (G1)?
-cell carries out its routine functions
What happens in Prophase?
-chromosomes coil up and become visible
-nuclear envelop dissolves
-spindle forms
Describe what happens in Metaphase.
-chromosomes move to center of cell; line up across the equator
-spindle fibers link the chromotids of each chromosome to opposite poles.
What is the mitosis checkpoint?
-triggers the exit from mitosis
-signalsthe beginning of G1
What is the G1 checkpoint?
-will the cell divide?
If healthy conditions, synthesis begins.
If not, it is stopped.
What is Binary Fission: Stage 1 and 2
1.DNA is copied, cell divides
2. Squeeze toward the center by a new cell membrane, and pinches off like a balloon.
Define A haploid.
A cell, such as a gamete, that has only one set of chromosomes.
Define a diploid.
A cell, such as a somatic cell, that contains two sets of chromosomes.
Describe what happens in Metaphase.
-chromosomes move to center of cell; line up across the equator
-spindle fibers link the chromotids of each chromosome to opposite poles.
What is the mitosis checkpoint?
-triggers the exit from mitosis
-signalsthe beginning of G1
What is the G1 checkpoint?
-will the cell divide?
If healthy conditions, synthesis begins.
If not, it is stopped.
What is Binary Fission: Stage 1 and 2
1.DNA is copied, cell divides
2. Squeeze toward the center by a new cell membrane, and pinches off like a balloon.
Define A haploid.
A cell, such as a gamete, that has only one set of chromosomes.
Define a diploid.
A cell, such as a somatic cell, that contains two sets of chromosomes.
Define Meiosis.
a form of cell division that halves the number of chromosomes when forming specialized reproductive ells, such as gametes or spores.
Define Spermatogenesis.
the process by which sperm are produced in male animals.
Define Oogenesis.
the process by which gametes are produced in female animals.
Defin Asexual Reproduction.
a single parent passes copies of all of its genes to each of its offspring; there is no fussion of haploid cells such as gametes.
Define Clone.
an individual produced by asexual reproduction.
Define Sexual Reproduction.
two parents each form haploid reproductive cells,which join to form offspring.
Define Life Cycle.
the entire span in the life of an organism from one generation to the next.
Define Spore.
a haploid reproductive cell produced by meiosis that is capable of developing into an adult without fusing with another cell.