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78 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Define Activation Energy
the energy required for a chemical reaction
Define Adhesion
the type of attraction that occurs between unlike molecules
Define Atom
the smallest unit of an element retaining the physical and chemical properties of that element
Define Atomic Number
The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom (located on the periodic table)
Define Atomic Weight
the mass of the atom
Define Buffer
fluid that can resist change in pH
Define Chemical Reaction
Involves the making or breaking of chemical bonds (covalent or ionic)
Define Cohesion
tendency of a molecule of the same kind to stick to one another
Define Compound
made up of two or more elements in a combined fixed ratio
Define Electronegativity
the affinity for electrons
Define Electropositivity
the ability of an atom to lose electrons
Define Elements
Substances that cannot be chemically broken down to other types of matter (substances made of only one type of atom)
Define Ion
an atom that has recieved a positive or negative charge due to the gaining or losing of electrons
Define Isomers
molecules with the same chemical formula, but differ in spatial arrangement
Define Isotopes
atoms with different amounts of neutrons in their nucleus
What is The Law of Conservation of Matter?
Matter is neither created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction
Define Matter
anything that takes up space and has mass
Define Molecule
The smallest unit of a compound; composed of atoms covalently bonded to one another
Define Valence Electrons
Electrons in the outer most shell of an atom
Define Valence Shell
The outermost shell of an atom
Define Alpha Helix
coil produced by hydrogen bonding between every fourth amino acid.
Define Amino Acids
Small molecules that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen atoms; two also contain sulfur atoms.
Define Amino Group
an amino consists of a nitrogen atom single-bonded to two hydrogen atoms. They are nonpolar, bases, and attract hydrogen ions
Define Carbohydrates
Give examples
an organic compound made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, with the hydrogen and oxygen atoms in a 2:1 ratio. All known types of living cells contain carbohydrates. (examples: sugars, starches, and cellulose.)
Define Carboxyl Group
an important functional group. The univalent (one valence electron) radical, COOH, the functional group characteristic of all organic acids.
Define Cellulose
a structural molecule found in the rigid walls surrounding plant cells, and it is an important part of wood and cotton fibers
Define Chitin
a structural polysaccharide formed from glucose monomers with nitrogen-containing groups and found in the exoskeleton of arthropods and the cell walls of many fungi
Define Cholesterol
a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol) and a lipid found in the cell membranes of all body tissues, and transported in the blood plasma of all animals. Lesser amounts of cholesterol are also found in plant membranes.
Define Dehydration Synthesis/Condensation
monomers build up to polymers (H2O extracted)
Define Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
nucleic acid that contains deoxyribose in their nucleotides
two simple sugar molecules (monosaccharides) that bond to form a double sugar molecule
the ability to do work
any of numerous proteins that are produced by living cells that start specific biochemical reactions at body temperatures
a more efficient form of energy storage than are carbohydrates because fats contain a larger number of hydrogen atoms and less oxygen
a simple sugar, C6H12O6, that differs from glucose in having a ketonic rather than an aldehydic carbonyl group
Functional Groups
specific groups of atoms in molecules that are in charge of chemical reactions
A monosaccharide sugar, C6H12O6, that serves as the major energy source of the body; it occurs in most plant and animal tissue.
a highly branched polymer of glucose, produced by animals
Glycosidic Linkage
a covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides.
any compound with just carbon and hydrogen
when compounds split apart when reacting with water (H2O added)
molecules with the same chemical formula, but differ in spatial arrangement
milk sugar; a dissacharide formed of glucose and the monosaccharide galactose
Lipids- Fats and oils
macromolecules that have two primary functions: long-term storage of energy and carbon and building of stuctural parts of cell membranes. They do not dissolve in water because the are non-polar.
really big organic molecules
a common disaccharide made of two glucose molecules
basic units in polymerization
the simplest carbohydrates which are single sugars - which may contain 3 to 7 carbon atoms in their carbon skeletons
Nucleic Acid
macromolecules that dictate the amino acid sequence of protiens, which in turn controls the basic life processes
relatively simple units connected to form long chains that make up nucleic acids
Organic Compounds
compounds in which carbon atoms are combined with hydrogen and usually oxygen, frequently also contain nitrogen, sulfur, or phosphorus, and are needed for life to exist
Peptide Bonds
a covalent chemical bond formed between two amino acids; bonds the amino group of each amino acid to the carboxyl group of the next
a glycerol linked to two fatty acids and a negatively charged phosphate group. The phosphorus head is hydrophilic and the tail is hydrophobic, so it forms a bilayer in cell membranes that acts as a selective barrier.
Pleated Sheet
regions of the polypeptide chains that are parallel to each other and held by repeating hydrogen bonds along the polypeptide backbone
many units
when large compounds are made from many small units
Nucleotides that are linked together by phosphodiester linkages into a DNA polymer.
a long chain of amino acids
complex carbohydrates formed by several glucose molecules that bond together (example: starch and cellulose are the complex carbohydrates commonly formed by plants)
Primary structure
unique sequence of amino acids in a protein determined by genes
Proteins- Define and Give examples.
structural components of cells as well as messengers and receivers of messages (also called receptors) between cells (example: skin, hair, nails, muscles, and parts of the skeleton)
family of nitrogenous bases, include adenine (A) and guanine (G), add a five-membered ring to the pyrimidine rings, two ring-shaped molecules joined together.
one family of nitrogenous bases, include cytosine (C), thymine (T), and uracil (U), characterized by six-membered rings of carbon and nitrogen atoms, a single ring.
Quaternary Structure
how several polypeptide chains are arranged and held together in a structural arrangement
Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
nucleic acid that contains ribose in their nucleotides
Saturated Fats
fats that tend to be solids at room temperature (example: butter and lard) and don't have double bonds
Secondary Structure
the coiling or folding of the polypeptide backbone stabilized by hydrogen bonds between the electronegative oxygen peptide bond and the positive hydrogen attached to the nitrogen of another peptide bond
an energy storage and carbon-reserve compound in many plants and is also an important food source for humans
most familiar dissacharide (table sugar) that contains glucose and another monosaccharide, fructose
biologically important sugars that have a phosphate group attatched to the carbon skeleton
forming a more complex substance (putting together)
Tertiary Structure
the 3-D shape of the protein
Tetravalent; give an example of something that is tetravalent
being able to bond 4 times (Carbon is tetravalent)
a simple fat formed by three fatty-acid molecules and one glycerol molecule that joins them together
Unsaturated Fats
fats containing unsaturated fatty acids and tend to be oily at room temperature (example: olive oil, corn oil, and sunflower oil) that have one or more double bonds
activation energy
the energy required for a reaction to take place
adenosine diphosphate (2 phosphate groups, ribose, adenine, 3rd phosphate goes into the inorganic nutrient pool; INP )
adenosine triphosphate, (3 phosphate groups, ribose, adenine)