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286 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the science that specializes in the study of all life is:
Biology
the word biology was coined by:
Lamarck
who is associated with the founding of the science of anatomy:
Galen
who is associated with demonstrating the circulation of blood in the human body
harvy
in aplying the princiles of the scientific method, a tentative conclusion based on observation is the:
hypothesis
redi disproved the theory of___of flies
spontanesous generation
any individual living plant or animal is appropriately termed a(an)
organism
the resolving power of the normal unaided eye is
.1 millimeter
x-rays were discovered by
roentgen
the study of evolution is the study of
origins and relationshis amon living species
inheritance and variation in living things are explained by the science of
genetics
scientists who specialize in tracking the pathways of disease outbreaks are
epidemiologists
any individual living plant or animal is appropriately termed an
organism
the technique of __ permits the biologist to separate unbelieveable small quantities of a substance into its many parts
x-ray diffraction
taking in of food is known as
ingestion
the chemical changes which change large food molecules in to smaller soluble ones are known as
digestion
the type of transport requiring energy is
active transport
energy releasing activities carried out by cells are known as
respiration
the wastes of cellular respiration are
carbon dioxide and water vapor
the movement of food coloring molecules through water without the application of energy is known as
diffusion
all of the biochemical activites in the body are included in the term
metabolism
reproduction that involves one parent is known as
asexual
when species lose their reproductive potential, they
become extinct
the long neck of the giraffe is considered to be an
adaptation
the first word in the species binomial refers to the
genus
the basic unit of classification is the
species
a mule can properly be described as a
hybrid
the name linneaus is best associated with
taxonomy
the scientific name is the same as the the
species name
Euglena is best classified as a
protist
tetrapods are animals that have four
limbs
all bacteria that cause disease are placed in the kingdom
Eubacteria
mushrooms are classified as
fungi
the current classification system consists of how many kingdoms
6
scintists are unable to agree on a standard definition of life. However they describe life in therms of the funcitons performed by living things. Which is not one of these funcions? Color - Growth - Tranportation - Nutrition
Color
In the six kingdom system, humans belong to the kingdom monera - T or F
False
the term used to refer to a trait that aids the survival of an individual aor a species to a given environment is
adaptation
the term used to develop a system to classify plants and animal is
taxonomy
kingdom phylum subphylum class order family genus species - Correct order? T or F
True
T or F: cells are basic units of energy which can be transferred as electric current in batteries
False
Which is not an example of a cell: ostrich egg - hair cell - fingernail - leukocyte
fingernail
multicellular organisms are produced from
one cell
the cells energy is used in the process of
active transport
because the cell membrane is highly selective in regard to the materials that can cross its boundary it is described as being
selectively permeable
the largest organelle in the cell is the
nucleus
the movement of water across a semipermeable membrane is called
osmosis
the shrinking of cytoplasm due to the loss of water molecules is known as
plasmolysis
molecules carried to the cell surface by vesicles are forced out of the cell by the process of
exocytosis
globular proteins are embedded in the ___ bilayer in the cell membrane
phospholipid
the prupose of the globular proteins in the cell membrane is to
allow water soluble materials to enter and leave the cell
fluid substances for export outside of the cell are stored temporarily in the membrane of the
golgi apparatus
the most numerous organelles in the cell are the
ribososmes
proteins for export are synthesized by __ that are attached to membranes of the ER
ribosomes
the main difference between animal cells and plant cells is
animal cells do not have a cell wall; all plants have a cell wall
in plants, the ___ conducts water and tis dissolved minerals upwardfrom the roots, awheras the ___ transports food material to all parts of the plant
xylem ; phloem
which process produces two new cells, identical to each other and contains the 2N number of chromosomes
mitosis
whch process produces four cells, each with an N number of chromosomes
meiosis
which process is the separation of the cytoplasm following nuclear division
cytokinesis
___ are plastids only found in plants and are responsible for the food making process known as ___
chloroplasts ; photosynthesis
which structure in the plant cell contains pigment that color the flowers, fruits, leaves and stems of plants
vacuoles
which structure in the cell contain hydrolytic enzymes that are capable of destroying the cell
lysosomes
bacteria are best described as
prokaryotic cells
muramic acid is isolated from the bacterial structure known as
cell wall
the funciton of the ribosomes is to
translate mRNA into protein
survival of the eubacteria is increased by the ability to
form endospores
nitrifying bacteria
convert ammonia into nitrates
the bacteria that live as parasites in the cells of ticks and mites are
rickettsiae
it is true that viruses
reproduce
tunicates are
marine invertebrates
a virus can reproduce only in
living cells
capsomeres are subunits of
viral coats
plamadesmata are
cytoplasmic bridges between cells
actinomycetes are at type of
bacterium
the protein coat of a virus is known as a
capsid
the cell membrane of the prokaryotes lacks the steroid
chloresterol
the only cellular organelle in bacteria is the
ribosomes
the evolutionary links between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells are the
prochlorons
the habitat of most blue greens is ____ water
fresh
a virus that infects bacteria is called a
bacteriophage
bacteria that are indifferent to oxygen are called
faculatative anaerobes
floating green plants that inhabit surfaces of lakes and oceans are known collectively as
phytoplankton
the methanogens belong to the kingdom
archaebacteria
evolution of protists involved the development of
membrane bound organelles
protists live - on land - in the sea - in fresh water
all
the primary purpose of the protozoan cyst is to
survive unfavorable conditions
trypanosoma gambiense is the organism that causes
african sleeping sickness
plamodium vivax is the organism
that causes malaria
trichocysts in ciliates serve mainly
as defense mechanisms
structures used for locomotion in the protists included all of the following except: pseudopods - legs - cilia - flagella
legs
paramecia move by means of
cilia
rhizoids are structures specialized for
absorbing nutrients
the plasmodium of true slime molds is best descrebed as
multinucleate
in part of the life cycle of the true slime molds sporangia are suported by structures
fruiting bodies
the yellow green algae lack
clorophyll b
an organism that lives inside of another and does harm to its host is known as a
parasite
noctiluca is noted for its
biolumanescense
nematocysts are used for
stinging
the protozoa are the
animal - like protists
the euglena is unique in that it has
both plant-like and animal-like characteristics
conjugation is
a form of sexual reproduction
limestone and chalk deposits are found in the shells of dead
diatoms
bacteria which form capsules make them
more resistant to phagocytosis
the DNA of prokaryotes is structured into
a single chormosome
a saprobe is an organism that
absorbs material from dead cells
septa are
dividing walls
gametangia are associated with
sexual reproduction
the only fungus division in which the gamestes are differentiated into sperm and egg is the
oomycota
a dikaryon is a cell that has
a single nucleus and lots of cytoplasm
rhizoids are characteristic of the fungus division
zygomycota
black bread mold is the type species for the fungus division
zygomacota
each class in the kingdom fungi uses special methods to produce
spores
fungi imperfecti are so named because
sexual reproduction has not been observed in them
mycorrhiza live in close association with
plant roots
chitin is a tough nitrogen containing polysaccharide that is present in
the cell walls of most species of fungi - the exoskeletons of insects
who dicovered the antibiotic properties of penecillium notatum
alexander fleming
lichens are organisms that
are composed of an alga and a fungus - can inhabit bare rock and barks of trees - carry out photosynthesis
is the production of vit K a funciton of fungi
No
which fungus is responsible for the fermentation of malt barley and hops to make beer
saccharomyces cervisiae
claviceps purpurea is responsible for
ergot - ergotism, a disease of humans - LSD
the common mushroom that we buy in the supermarkets belong to the division
basidiomycota
haustoria are
specialized structures that penetrate the cell walls of plants to absorb nutrients
chlamydomonas resembles the protists because it lives in water and swims by means of
flagella
the funciton of the pyrenoid body is to
store starch
the sea lettuce ulva has a life cycle that includes
alteration of generations
a thallus is
a flat sheet of photosynthetic cells
fucus is a representive species of the phaeophyta which have very prominent
air bladders
the greatest hazard to land dwelling plants is
drying out
waterproofing of land cells is made possible by cell walls composed of
cutin
examples of bryophytes are
hornwort, liverwort, moss
dried, ground stems of the horsetails are used in scouring poweder because their cell walls contain
silica
ferns are successful land plants because they have well-developed
vascular systems
in the gymnosperms, the megasporophyll is a (an)
seed cone
the embryo plant is protected inside of the
seed
in the flowering plants, te male reproductive structures are the
stamens
the part of the young root that pushes its way through the soil is the
root cap
xylem conduct water and minerals
upward to the leaves
phloem conduct fluid compounds
downward from the leaves
where on the leaf do oxygen and carbon dioxide pass in and out?
on the underside of the leaf, through pores known as stomates
the root cortex serves to
store water and food
an underground stem is called a
rhizome
a tendril is a specialized
stem
sap rises in trees due to the force created by
transpiration
the word meristem refers to
rapidly growing cells
herbaceous stems of monocotyledons do not have ___ and therefore do not increase appreciably in size
cambium
woody stems are composed od primary and secondary tissues; the primary tissues develop from ___, whereas the secondary tissues develop from ___
meristem, cambium
vascular bundles consist of
xylem and phloem
in the cnidaria, the body is composed of
two tissue layers
in jellyfish, the digestion takes place in the
gastrovascular cavity
coral reefs are formed by
lime-secreting polyps
medusae are produced by
eggs and sperm
flatwrom embryos differentiate into
ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm
bilateral symmetry brings with it
refinement of body systems
each tapeworm segment has a complete
reproductive system
a true statement about planaria is
planaria show the first signs of cephalization
the circulatory system of the annelid is
closed
the term metamerism refers to
a series of identical segments
the trochophore larva
shows relationships between phyla
the term dioecious means
sex organs are in separate animals
the nephridia in the nereis sandworm has a function similar to that of
a kidney
a true statement about the earthworm is
earthworms copulate and exchange sperm
cercaria are best associated with
flukes
animal flowers refer to
sea anemones
proglottids are segments of
taenia
the most advance phylum of invertebrates is
mollusca
the life cycle of the chinese liver fluke includes
snails, fish and humans
infection by hook worm can be avoided by wearing
shoes
the true coelom first apperars in the
annelida
the body of all mollusks is covered by a membranous
mantle
orientation to gravity is controlled by jellyfish sense organs known as
statocysts
the outstanding characteristic of the arthropods is
jointed appendages
book lungs are the breathing mechanisms of
arachnids
examples of malacostraca are
lobsters and sow bugs
ommatidia are structrual and functional units of the
compound eye
lobster embryos
attach to the female swimmerets
the insect body is divided into the
head, thorax, abdomen
the breathing holes on the abdomen of the grasshopper connect to
tracheal tubules
the growth and differentiation that tacke place in insect larva is controlled by the
ecdysone
if an outbreak of encephalitis should occur in a specific geographic locale, public health investigator would most likely search for organisms belonging to the order
diptera
culex pipiens is best described as a
carrier
plasmodium, a pathogenci protist, is most closely associated with the insect genus
anopheles
the mouthparts of mosquitoes are structred for
piercing
in order for their eggs to mature, female mosquitoes requier a meal of
blood
simple eyes are known as
ocelli
green glands have a ___ function
excretory
wing stubs in mosquitoes are used for the purpose of
balancing
the honey bee exhibits a specialized social structre called
polymorphism
mosquito species are identified by
resting position of the adult and the shape of the larva
drones, or fertile male honey bees develop from
unfertilized eggs
worker bees are
sterile males
a distinctive featue of the phylum echinodermata is the
spiny skin
sea stars have a functional
water vascular system
in the sea star a light sensitive eyespot is located
at the tip of each arm
the process in which embyros obtain nourishment from the yolk in the egg is described as
ovoviviparous
the dogfish is a
shark
teleosts are the
bony fish
the gill covering of the bony fish is the
operculum
it is true that fish
have three semicircular canals
the fetal membrane that functions as an organ of respiration and excretion is the
allantois
the reptiles are true land animals because they
reproduce on land
bipedal locomotion is characteristic of
birds
hollow bones, numerous air sacs and loss of teeth are adaptations for
flying
the four chambered heart first appeared in
birds
metamorphosis is best associated with
frogs
roe and milt are best associated with
fish
the number of sperm cells necessary to fertilize and egg is
one
the number of ovaries in a female bird is
one
egg laying mammals are known as
monotremes
the production of song in birds is associated with the
syrinx
the shark's skeleton is made up of
cartilage
the carapace and the plastron are best associated with the
turtle
an immature fish is called a
fry
the swim bladder enables the fish to float and is an outgrowth of the
operculum
the lateral line in sharks and fish are sensitive to
pressure and light
wings of birds are
modified forelimbs
which is NOT a special feature that distinguishes a primate from other mammals?
sexual reproduction with ovaries and testes in separate organisims
what adaptation has set humans apart from other primates
bipedation - ability to speak - ability to write
the coelome cavity in humans is divided into which areas
pericardial cavity, pleural cavities and peritoneal cavity
australopithecus africamus is considered to have been a
human hominid
a species of early human, the fossils of which have been found all over the world is
homo erectus
the early autotrophs were probably
blue green algae
the first living cells were probably
heterotrophs
the modern theory of the origin of life was initially developed by
oparin
darwin's theory of evolution is known as
natural selection
genes are sorted out and recombined by the process of
sexual reproduction
the age of the earth is measured by a process called
radioactive dating
uranium-238 ultimately turnes into
lead
it is estimated that the oldest rocks on earth are about ____ years old
3 billion
fossil plants and animals are dated by measuring the ___ content
radioactive carbon and non-radioactive carbon ration
fossil records may be found in which of the following conditions
bogs, tar pits, coal, amber
the theory of use and disuse was proposed by
lamarck
which of the following structures would support the theory of use and disuse
appendix
variation in terms of mutations was first explained by
de vries
the loss of genes from a population is known as
genetic drift
the experiments of ___ helped to explain how organic molecules appeared in the early seas
miller
changes that have taken place in the structure and energy of earth are classified as ___ evolution
inorganic
the kind of rock in which fossils are found is ___ rock
sedimentary
the nonliving factors in an ecosystem are referred to as
abiotic
the air is made up of
21% oxygen, 78% nitrogen, .03% carbon dioxide and inert gases
the habitat of phytoplankton is the
ocean surface
an ecological niche is a
feeding pattern
the lives of organisms in and ecosystem depend upon the
flow of energy through the ecosystem
in a food chain, letuce is best classified as a
producer
the arrow in a food web diagram stands for
is eaten by
in a food web, hawks are best classified as
predators(tertiary consumers)
plants measure time and length of light by the action of ___, associated with the ___. this determines flowering
phytochrome, cell membrane
erosion, or the washig away of topsoil from the slopes of hills is best prevented by
rooted plants - contour plowing
an example of an adaptation that permits the survival of some plant species in the tropical rain forest is
aerial roots
the source of hydrogen for all living things is
water
the source of nitrogen for all living things is the atmosphere, but it must first be fixed by
nitrogen fixing bacteria - lightning
in desert biomed, the average rainfall is no greater than
6.5cm
examples of primary consumers in the marine biome are
sardine and anchovy
a biome is best defined as
the living organisms in a given world wide climate
aphids liver in the intestines of termites and digest cellulose for the termites. the termites provide the aphids with a protective environment. this relationship is best classified as
mutualism
one effect of global warming predicted by research geochemists is the
premature melting of ice and snow
a subarctic biome is designatedas
taiga
oil and coal
considered nonrenewable
the soil covering the earth measures about ___ in depth
.9 meters
strip cropping is
not a negative effect of humans on the environment
the orderly change of a biotic community is known as
succession
the seeds of most diciduous plants must go through a period of ___ before they can germinate
cold
excessive carbon dioxxide and methane gases continually released into the atmosphere cause
the greenhouse effect
the living community and the nonliving environment are known collectively as the
ecosystem
the number of species that can successively occupy a niche is
one
photosynthesis take place in the chlorolasts of green
leaves - stems
the important event of photosynthesis is the changng of ___ energy into ___ energy which is ultimately stored in ___
light, chemical, sugar
the raw materials of photosynthesis are
carbon dioxide and water
the by-products of photosynthesis are
oxygen, sugar and water
plant hormones affect
groth and response to the enviornment - affect virtually every tissue of plant
which of the following plant hormones affects the release of the food from the seed to the embryo plant
gibberellins
which of the following plant hormones controls root, stem and leaf growth
gibberellins
which plant hormones will cause the plant to bend toward sunlight
auxin
which plant hormone accumulate in stem tips and restrain the development of side stems or branches
auxin
which gas is produced by plants which controls the ripening of fruits and plays an important role in toe growth of seediling upward through the soil
ethylene
photoperiodicity is
the lenght of the day and its relationship to flowering - different with different plants
invertebrates are animals
without backbones - lack cell walls - the most diverse group of animals in the kingdom animalia
divides the aimal into equal and symmetrical halves when sectioned through the center
spherical symmetry
what is a characteristic of animals that have a head end a tail end and right and left sides
bilateral symmetry
embryonic animal cell layers or pirmary germ layers are
ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm
animals with simple body structures may develop from only ___ and ___ because ___ remains undifferentiated
ectoderm, endoderm, mesoderm
species which reproduce when a part of parent cells breaks off and then continues its own existence is called
budding
species which reproduce when an unfertilized egg develops into a complete individual is called
parthenogenesis
sponges are composed of differentiated cells which are organized into specialized tissues
false
the skeleton of a sponge is made up of
spicules - a protein known as spongin - lime or silica
which structure in sponges is responisble for capturing micro ortanisms from water
collar cells
which structure in sponges are responsible for transporting digested molecules to other parts of the sponge
collar cells
spontes are hemaphrodites which means that
eggs and sperm are produced in the same animal