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84 Cards in this Set

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What results from the process of mitosis?
the division of the cell nucleus
Why do cells undergo mitosis?
Every cell must copy its genetic information to reproduce a sister cell.
Mitosis is divided into several stages. What are these stages?
Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
Interphase is divided into 3 stages. List these stages and state what occurs in each phase.
G1, S, G2.
G1-a period of activity in which cells do most of their growing. Cells increase in size.
S-chromosomes are replicated and the synthesis of DNA molecules takes place. Key protiens associated with the chromosomes are also synthesised.
G2-when the cell replication is done. the shortest phase. many of the organelles required for cell division are produced.
Describe what occurs during prophase.
the first and longest phase.The chromatin condenses into chromosomes. The centrioles separate, and a spindle begins to form. The nuclear envelope breaks down.
Describes what occurs during metaphase.
The chromosomes line up across the center of the cell. Each chromosome is connected to spindle fiber at its centromere.
Describes what occurs during anaphase.
The sister chromatids separate into individual chromosomes and are moved apart.
Describe what occurs during cytokinesis.
The cytoplasm pinches in half. Each daughter cell has an identical chromosomes.
How does plant cell mitosis differ from animal cell mitosis?
cytokinesis is different. cell plate forms.
Meiosis is cell division that reduces the number of _ in a cell.
Gametes result from what cellular process?
Meiosis II
Why is meiosis a necessary process for sexually reproducing organisms?
its how organisms produce gametes.
a cell that contains both sets of homologous chromosomes which means 2 sets.
single set of genes. one set.
homologous chromosome
meaning that each of the the 4 chromosomes that came from the male parent has a corresponding chromosome from the female parent.
specialied cell involved in sexual reproduction
punnett square that has
genetic makeup
physical characteristics
What are the sex chromosomes for a human female?
What are the the sex chromosomes for a human male?
Descride the syndrome and the chromosomal condition:
in females. A female with tuner's syndrome usually inherits only 1 X chromosome. Women with this syndrome are sterile, which means that they are unable to reproduce.
Describe the syndrome and the chromosomal condition:
In males. the extra X chromosome (XXY) interferes with meiosis and usally prevents these individuals from reproducing.
Describe the syndrome and the chromosomal condition:
born with 3 copies of 21 chromosome. It produces mild to severe mental retardation.
DNA stands for what?
deoxyribonucleic acid
What are the four nitrogen bases found in DNA. Which ones are purines and which ones are pyrimidines?
What is the base pairing rule and who developed this rule?
A=T, G=C Chargaff
What is the 3-D structure of DNA?
double helix
What molecules make up the sides of the DNA molecule, and what molecules are found in the middle?
on the sides: Sugar-phosphate group
in the middle: Hydrogen bonds
What is replication? When does replication occur?
before a cell divides it duplicates it's self.
What is the job of DNA polymerase?
the principal enzyme involved in DNA replication. the nucleotidesto produce a dna molecule. ir proofreads each new DNA strand.
Suppose a strand of DNA has the nitrogen base sequence of CCAGGATTA. What is the nitrogen base sequence found in the complimentary strand of DNA?
RNA stands for what?
ribonucleic acid
What are three differences between RNA and DNA?
the sugar in RNA is ribose instead of deoxyribose. RNA is usally single stranded, RNA contains uracil in place of thymine.
Describe the process of transcription. In what part of the cell does transcription take place?
the RNA polymerase binds to DNA and seperates the DNA strands. RNA polymerase then uses one strand of DNA as a template from which nucleotides are assembled into a strand of RNA.
describe translation. In what part of the cell does translation take place?
decoding an mRNA message into an polpoptide. The cell uses information from mRNA to produce protiens.
What is a codon? A codon codes for what?
consists of three consecutive nucleotides that specify a single amino acid that is to be added to the polypeptide.
distinguish betweem mRNA and tRNA.
m-attaches to the ribosome.
the t-recieves the ribosome
Why are proteins so important to a cell?
proteins are enzymes which catalyze and regulate chemical reactions.
Charles Darwin formed the theory of evolution by _ _.
Natural selection
Describe the process of natural selection.
process by which individuals that are better suited to their environment survive and reproduce most successfully; also called survival of the fittest.
What fields of science provides evidence for evolution?
fossil record, the geographical distribution of living species, homologous structures of living organisms, and similarities in early development, or embryology.
What is a fossil?
remains of ancient organisms
Vestigial structure
little or no function
Homologous structure
structures that have different mature forms but develop from the same embryonic tissues
Species that are most closely related have DNA sequences that are (more/less) similar.
_ _ is the mechanism for change in population that occurs when individuals with the most favorable variations for a particular environment survive and pass these traits on to offspring?
natural selection
What is a gene pool?
combined genetic information of all the members of a particular population.
Genetic drift
random change in allele frequencies that occurs in small populations
change in a DNA sequence that affects genetic information.
Population genetics studies the allele _ in a population.
What are the two Hardy-Weinberg equations used by population geneticists?
p² + 2pq + q² = 1
p = AA + ½Aa
List the six kingdoms.
kingdom:Archaebacteria, Eubacteria, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia
Archaebacteria (what type of organisms)
single-celled procaryotic organisms, without a cell wall
Eubacteria (what type of organisms)
single-celled procaryotic organisms, with cell walls. sometin=mes form colonies of clumps or filaments.
Protista (what type of organisms)
Eukaryotic; usually unicellular; some multicellular or colonial; heterotrophic or autotrophic organisms.
kingdom Fungi
Eukaryotic; heterotrophic; unicellular or multicellular; mostly decomposers
Kingdom Plantae
eukaryotic; multicellular and nonmotile; possess chloroplasts; autotrophs
Kingdom Animalia
multicellular; eukaryotic; heterotrophs lack cell wall
Taxonomy is the science of what?
classification. Its: scientists classify organisms and assign each organism a universally accepted name.
Who is considered to be the founder of modern taxonomy?
Carolus Linnaeus
List the levels of the taxonomic scheme from the most inclusive (largest) to least inclusive catagory.
The naming of an organism using two names is called _ _.
binomial nomenclature
The scientific name of an organism is composed of what two taxonomic categories?
Genus and Species
What is a dichotomous key?
is a series of paired statements that describe physical characteristics of different organisms.
List 5 characteristics that are common to all animals.
No cell walls
No chloroplasts
The kingdom Animalia is divided into what two subkingdoms?
Parazoa and Eumetazoa. Parazoans dont have organs systems. Eumetazoans do.
Reptiles became very successful land animals due in part to the development of the _ egg.
List and state the function of the parts of the amniotic egg.
eggshell and composed of that create a protective enviroment in which the embryo can develop out of the water.
Distinguish between bilateral and radial symmetary.
bilateral-only one line of symmetry.
radial- many lines of symmetry
The three germ layers that most animals are derived from are _, _, and _.
acoelomate; Pseudocoelomate; Coelomate
digestive cavity
digestive tract
no body cavity
List the modern reptiles, and give an ex. in each order.
Lizard and Snakes-squamata, Gila
Crocodillians- Nile croc
Turtle and Tortoises- Red-eared slider turtle
What are some adaptations found in birds that allow them to fly?
efficient digestive, respiratory, and circulatory systems. aerodynamic feathers and wings; strong lightweight bones; and strong chest muscles.
A _ is the most unique structure found in a bird.
Wat are the three different groups of mammals?
Monotremes, Marsupials, Placental
What group of mammals contain pouches?
What group of mammals lay eggs?
What of mammal is human?
opposable thumb
What is the name of the gland that secretes milk?
mammary gland
The female parts of the flower include what?
Ovary, Ovule, stigma
The male part of the flower is called what?