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182 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Why did Mendel chose Pisum sutivum, the garden pea, for his experiments.
He was able to find several varieties of Pisum sativum that differed in easly distinguishable traits, he knew that he could expect one of the two forms of each trait to disappear in one generation and reappear in the next, and the pea is a small, easy to grow plant that matures quickly and produces in large numbers
Step 1 of Mendel's garden pea experiment produved the__.
P generation
In tbe F2 generation is Mendel's experiments, the ratio of dominant to recessive traits was__.
3:1
The trait that was expressed in the F1 generation in Mendel's experiment is cnsidered__.
dominant
Mendels law of segregation states that__.
teh members of each pair of alleles separate when gametes are formed.
A cross between snapdragon with red flowers and one with white flowers produves a snapdragon with pink flowers. Teh trait for flower color exhibits__.
incomplete dominance
Which of the following is NOT considered a genetic disorder?
A.sickle cell anemia, B.Hemophilia, C.AIDS,
D.cystic fibrosis
C.AIDS
Which chromosome would a sex-linked trait be found on in humans
X
A method that will enable a couple to understand teh nature of hereditary disorder and teh risk for passing it on to their offspring is__.
genetic counseling
True or False.
Teh transmission of traits from parent to offspring is called heredity.
True
True or False
When Mendel cross polinated two varieties from tehe P generation that exhibited contrasting traits, he called the offspring teh second filial, or F2 generaion.
False
True or Fals
In Mendel's experiments, teh recessive traits reappeared in teh F2 generation in approximately 25% of the plants.
True
True or False
What Mrndel called factors are today called genus.
True
True or False
Each copy of a genus is called an allele.
True
True or False
Mendel's law of independent assortment holds tru for all genes, regardlews of location.
False
True or False
When you toss a coin, teh probability that it will land headesup is 1/4, or 25%
False
Tru or false
A dihybrid cross between 2 individuals that are heterozygous for both pairs of traits will produce offspring that are likely to have 9 different genotypes taht will result in 4diffrent phenotypes.
True
True or false
Genes with more that 2 alleles are regerred to as having multiple alleles.
True
True or False
Hemophilia is caused by a mutated allele that produces a defective for of the protein hemoglobin.
False
Teh branch of biology that studies heredity is called__.
genetics
A flower fertilizes itself through a process known as__.
self pollination
Teh three generation of plants in Mendel's experiments were the __ teh __, and teh __..
P generation, F1 generation, F2 generation.
The__ or physical appearance of and indicidual is determined by teh alleles that code for teh traits. The set of alleles that and individual has is called its__.
phenotype, genotype
The likelihood that a specific event will occur is called__.
probability
A genetic cross between a pea plant that is true breeding for green pod color and one that is true breeding for yellow pod color is an example of a__ cross.
monohybrid
Sometimes several genes influence a trait, producing a variety of phenotypes on a continuum from one extreme to the other. Traits of this type are said to exhibit __ __.
continuous variation
Mutations in genetic material may produce __ __ such as cystic fibrosis and muscular dystropy
genetic disorders
__ is a condition that impairs the blood's ability to clot.
Hemophilia
A trait that is determined by a gene found only on teh X chromosome is called a __ __.
sex-linked trait
__, a genetic disorder that may cause sever mental retardation, can now be detected in a newborn babies by an inexpensive lab test.
PKU
Name Mendel's two laws of heredity.
teh law of segregation and teh law of independent assortment.
Name two genetic disorders that are sex-linked
Hemophilia; Muscular dystrophy
The law of segregation states that __.
alleles of a gene seperate from each other during meiosis.
If a characteristic is sex linked it__.
iccurs mostly in males
What device is used to organize genetic analysis?
Punnett Square
When two members fo teh F1 generation are allowed to breed with each other, teh offsprin are reffered to as__.
F2 generation
Both archaebacteria and eubacteria are _.
prokaryotes
Teh process thattakes plave when two parents contribute genetic material that recombines during the formation of offspring is called__.
sexual reproduction
Many biologist believe that sexual reporduction developed as a mechanism to __.
repair DNA
Eukaryotic organisms are characterized by three types of sexual life cycles:
sygotic meiosis, gametic meiosis, and sporic meiosis
Carl Linnaeus developed a system for naming organisms called__.
binomial nomenclature
Today scientists classify organisms into a heirarchial system with secen basic levels:
Kingdon, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species
A group of organisms that share many characteristics and interbreed with each other is called a __.
species
true or flase
TEh cell walls of archaebacteria are made of peptidoglycan.
False
True or False
Mitochondria reproduce by simple fission.
True
True or False
Asexual reproduction allows for genetic variability
False
True or False
Many species f protists form diploid cells as a result o enviormental stress
True
True or False
A multicellular organism is composed of many cells that are associated with each other and integrate their activites
True
True or false
TEh science of naming and classifying organisms is clled taxonomy
True
True or False
Two differnet organisms may be assigned the same scientific name
False
Methanogens are __ __ ,organisms taht are poisoned by oxygen.
obligate anerobes
Teh earliest group or eukaryotes are all __.
protists
Off spring that result from __ reporudction can always maintain a parents successful gene combinatin.
asexual
Many protists form __, consisting of many cells with little or no integration.
colony
The latin word for "group" is __.
Genus
When you write a scientific name, teh first letter f the genus name is always __ and teh first letter ofteh second word is always __.
capitalized, underlined
Each particle of TMV is made of only two kinds of molecules. These kinds are:
teh nucleic acid RNA and protein.
Viruses and cells are alike in that both
reproduce
Icosahedron regers to the structure of a virus's__.
capsid
HIV can reproduce only within __.
human cells
When a bacterium has a cell wall with a large amount of peptidoglycan, it is __.
gram- positive
Bacterial cells lack __.
chromosomes
Tuberculosis is a disease of the __.
respitory system
capsid
teh protein sheath that surrounds a virus's core of nucleic acid
envelope
surrounds the capsid of many viruses and helps them gain entry into celss
glycoproteins
proteins with carbohydrate molecules attached
bacteriophage
bacterial virus with capsid that is a polyhedral
pathogen
an agent that causes disease
antibody
a protein secreted by by cells in the imune system in response to a foreign substance in the body
reverse transcriptase
enzyme in a retrovirus that manufactures DNA that is complementary to the virus's RNA.
retrovirus
a virus that transcribes DNA from an RNA template
bacillus
a rod shaped bacterial cell
coccus
a spherical bacterial cell
spirillum
a spiral bacterial cell
capsule
the gelatinous layer outside of the cell wall and membrane of many bacteria
gram positive
bacterium posessing a cell wall with large amount of peptidoglycan
gram negative
bacterium possessing a cell wall with a thin layer
endospore
thick wall formed by som ebacteria to protect their chromosome in times of enviormental stress
heterocyst
specialized structure found in many cyanobacteria that contains enzyme capable of converting nitrogen gas into ammonium
A __ is a strang of nucliec acid encased in a protein coat that infects cells and replicates within them
virus
Viruses must rely on __ __ for reproduction.
living cells
Teh nucliec acid found in most viruses is __.
DNA
__ of E. coli have 2 main functions: to adhere to surfaces and to join bacterial cells prior to teh transfer of DNA from one cell to another.
gram negative
In the presence of hydrogen-rich chemicals, __ bacteria can manufacture all of their own amino acids and proteins.
chemoautrotrophic
__ , such as penicillin, work by interferin with the pathogenic micro organisms's cellular processes
atibiotic
__ __ is carried from infeted animals by ticks
Lyne disease
What did Wendel Stanley conclude about the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in 1933?
TMV is chemical matter rather than a living organism
How does E. Coli reproduce?
binary fission
Some pathogens damage the body by teh production of __.
toxins
E. coli is an example of a bacerium that has short, thin,hairlike projectins called __.
pili
Cell organelles that E. coli and other bacteria have in common with eukaryotes are __.
ribsomes
True or false
The first protists were prokaryotes
False
True or False
Teh kingdom Protista contains all eukaryotes that cannot be classified as animals,plants, or fungi.
True
True or False
Protists can parasitize animals, but they cannot parasitize plants.
False
True or False
Oomycetes are sometimes called water molds
True
True or False
Amoebic dysentery is usually passed from person to person by coughing and sneezing
False
Zoospores are produced as a result of __.
mitosis
Teh haploid gamete producing phase in the life cycle of some protists is known as the __.
gametophyte
Green algae are considered to be the ancestors of __.
the plant kingdom
A mass of cytoplasm that can ooze around obstacles and even pass through cloth is most likely a __.
slime mold
TEh process in which two paramecia come together after meiosis to exchange parts of their genetic material is called __.
conjugation
Teh protozoan that causes malaria reproduves in the __ of humans.
red blood cells
Two importantfeatures that evolved in the protists were sexual reproduction and __.
melticellularity
Diatoms exhibit radial or __ symmetry
bilateral
amoebas
protists with no cell wall or flagella that live in fresh water, salt water and teh soil
forams
marine protists that live in sand or attach to other organisms or rocks
diatoms
photosynthetic, unicellular protists ith unique double shells made of silica; they are abundant in oceans and lakes
dinoflagellates
unicellular photosynthetic protists, most with two flagella; teh majority are marine and are often a component of plankton
oomycetes
water molds, white rusts, and downy mildews that often grow on dead algae and animals in fresh water
Some protists have __, small organelles containing light sensitive pigments that detect changes in teh quality and intensity of light.
eye spots
Diatoms can have one of the two tpes of symmetry:
radial, bilateral
Teh collar cells draw water through the sponge's many pores and into teh internal cavity of teh sponge by beating their __.
flagella
Teh support for most sponges is provided within the mesenchyme by a simple skeleton composed of protein fibers called __.
spongin
Sessile animals are __.
immobile
Hydras attach themselves to rocks or water plants by means of a sticky secretion produved by the __.
basal disk
A ring shaped coral island that forms far out at sea is nown as __.
atoll
Tapeworms absorb food from the host's intestine through their __.
mouth
Teh simplest animal that has a digestive tube open at both ends is the __.
round worm
Amoebocyte
an amoebalike cell in a sponge that moves through teh body cells suplying nutrients and removing wastes
spongin
tough, flexible protein fibers that make up the skeleton of some sponges
spicules
tiny, hard needles of silica or calcium carbonate that make up the skeleton of some sponges
gemmules
produced by some freshwater sponges, these food filled balls of amoebocytes have protective coats that enable them to survive harsh conditions that may kill the adult sponge
Hydrozoa
the most primitive cnidarians
planulae
free-swimming larvae
Scyphodozoa
jellyfish are members of this class of cnidarians
Anthozoa
the largest class of cnidarians, which includes sea anemones and corals
flukes
parasitic flatworms of the class Trematoda
endoparasites
parasites that live inside their hosts
ectoparasites
parasites that live on teh external surface of their hosts
flame cells
in plkanaria, specialized cells with beating tufts of cilia that draw water through pores to the outside of teh worm's boday
tegument
thick protective covering of cells that protects endoparasites from being digestd by their host
proglottids
the rectangular body sections of the tapeworm
An organism that produves both eggs and sperm is called a __.
hermaphrodite
Some sponges have both __ and __ to strengthen their bodies
spongin and spicules
Eggs of a ertain individual sponge cannot be fertilized bt the sperm of the __ __.
same sponge
The Portuguese man of war is a member of the class __.
Hydrozoans
Most hydrozoans are colonial organisms whose polyps reproduce __ by forming small buds on the outside of their body.
asexually
Dugesia must extend its muscualr __ out of its ventrally lovated mouth in order to feed
mouth
Humans can become infected by beef tapeworms if they eat beef that is not __.
cooked
The fertilized eggs of both mollusks and annelids develop into a distinct larval form called a __.
trochophore
Most mollusks have a __.
three chambered heart and an open circulatory system
The great evolutionary advancement achieved by the annelids is __.
segmentation
All annelids have a__.
closed circulatory system and a series of hearts
When soil in the digestive passage of an earthworm leaves the crop, it passes directly to the __.
gizzard
True or false
Mollusks and annelids are not related
True
True or False
Most mollusks breathe with ciliated gills located in their mantle cavity
True
True or False
Of all the mollusks, only octopuses and squids have closed circulatory systems.
True
True or False
Bivalves reproduce asexually
False
True or False
During the evolution of slugs and nudibrachs, their shell was lostq
true
True or false
Teh spevies of teh class Cephalopoda are sessile filter feeders
False
True or false
Cephalopods exhibit both sexes
True
True or False
Most Annelids have external bristles called setae
True
True or false
An annelid's blood does not typically contain hemoglobin
false
True or false
Polychaetes are terrestrial worms that tunnel through the soil.
False
True or False
Earthworms are hermaphrodites
True
__ and __ were probably the first major groups to develop a true coelom
mollusk, annelid
Bivalves feed by sucking sea water through hollow tubes called __.
siphin
The trochophore larvae of marine bivalves and marine gastropods develop into a second stage called a __.
viliger
The circulatory system of an earthworm includes a series of __.
hearts
Leeches lacke the external appendages known as __ and __.
parapodia, seta
A crustacean sessile as an adult.
barnicle
What is ancestor of arthropod?
annelids
Appendages scorpions use to capture prey
palps
Structure in insects used for getting rid of waste
Malpigian tubules
What determines social in insects?
genetics
What is purpose of teh ovipositor
to dig the hole to place the eggs in
Structures on spiders abdomen that direct flow of silk
spinaretes
3 subphyla of arthropods
crustaceans, uniramia, chelicera
4 stages of complete metamorphasis
egg, larva, pupa, adult
butterfly pupa stage
chrysalis
larva stage of a butterfly
caterpillar
arthropods that have jaws
mandibulates
tube like structures that exchange air in grasshopper
trachea
opening that lead into trachea
spiracles
structure emerging from main body
apendage
exoskeleton of most terrestrial arthropods
chitin
proper term for molting
ecdysis
fused head and body segmenets
cephlathorazx
What class do crustaceans belong to?
decapods
grasshoppers hearing organ
tympanum
second stage of incomplete metamorphosis
nymph
what do we call respitory structure in spiders?
book lungs