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42 Cards in this Set

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Potential Energy
Stored Energy
Kinetic Energy
Energy of movement
Anabolic Reaction
reactions that link simple molecules together to make complex molecules
catabolic reaction
reactions that break down complex molecules into simpler ones
enzymes
a catalyst of any substance that speeds up chemical reactions without itself being used up, mostly biological catalyst, they bind specific substrates and at a particular site, they are highly specific
reduction
a gain of one or more electrons or hydrogen atoms
oxidation
a loss of one more electrons or hydrogen atoms
somatic mutation
passed during mitosis, cells that have these mutations never become gametes, not passed onto future generation
germ line mutation
occur in cells that will become gametes
conditional mutants
some mutations exert their effects only under certain restrictive conditions
point mutation
result from adding or subtracting of a nucleotide base of the substitution of one base for another, occurs as a result of mistakes during DNA replication, or environmental
silent mutation
result no change in any amino acid sequence of the protein
missense mutation
cause amino acid substitution, reduce the functioning of protein or disable it
nonsense mutation
base subsitution that cause a change from a codon that instructs the incorporation of an amino acid to a codon that terminates translation
frame shift mutation
single base is inserted or deleted, shifting the code
chromosomal mutation
DNA breaks and reforms
four types:
deletion
duplication
inversions
translocation
deletion mutation
lost of chromosomal segments
duplication
repeats of a segment
inversion
segment breaks off and reinsert itself the opposite orientation
translocation
a portion of one chromosome attaches to a different chromosome
induced mutation
permanent mutation caused by outside agents
final products of aerobic respiration
6 NADH
2 FADH2
2 CO2
1 GTP
mendel's first law
Law of Segregation
when fertilization occurs the pairs are reestablished by receiving one copy of allele from each parent
mendel's second law
Law of Independent assortment
Ss alleles sort into gametes independently of the Yy. the gametes of the dihybrids have on allele of each gene. four different gametes are possible
phenotype
physical appearance of an organism
genotype
actual composition of an organims alleles for a gene
exon
introns are interspersed with the coding regions
intron
noncoding regions
hypersensitivity
immune system overreact to a dose of antigen, over hours of exposure, too much IgE is produced, releases histamines, t-cells are involved
autoimmunity
when clonal deletion fail, forbidden clones are made
HIV
virus that leads to AIDs
AIDs
depletion of helper t cells, transmitted through blood or body fluids, causing tH cells to drop
T cells
migrate to the thymus where they mature, releases cytokine, able to detect agents within a cell
cytotoxic: recognizes virus-infected cells causing them to lyse
Helper: encourages t cells and b cells to divide
B cells
circulate and collect in the lymph nodes, secretes antibodies, recognizes a certain shape of composition
Plasma
made from B cells
cytokines
proteins release by t cells, bind to alter the behavior of their target cells
complement protein
antimicrobial proteins, causes fluid to enter these foreign cells to cause them to burst
interferons
produced by cells that are infected by a virus, increases the resistance of neighboring cells to infections
deuterostomes
large mouth, 6 pairs of external gills, segmented posterior body section, gills lost, lungs developed, three part coelom, ciliated larvae, bilateral symmetry
2 groups:
echinoderms/hemichordates
chordates
ecdysozoans
wormlike bodies, thick flexible exoskeletons aka cuticles, worms
changes from water to land
evolution of the lung like sacs set the stage for organism to move onto land, aloowing them to breathe air and leave water temporary, changes in fin structure allowed fish to move onto land, fish evolved into amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals
amniotic egg
shells made out of calcium and prevent the evaporation of fluids inside yet allows oxygen and carbon dioxide to pass, allows the embryo to reach advance stages before hatching