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20 Cards in this Set

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Stem Cell
-undifferentiated
-grows continuously and proliferates
What are the 4 types of potencies?
-Totipotent
-Pluripotent
-Multipotent
-Unipotent
Totipotent
can become any cell type, the best ones to get. Found only in early embryo
Pluripotent
2 weeks after conception
-any cell type in a fully developed person
Multipotent
-most common in adults
-can become many cell types but limited
Unipotent
can become nothing else but itself esp. nerve cells
-stem cells in the skin and bone marrow
Possible uses of stem cells
-replaced diseased cells ex. Alzheimer's and Parkinson's
-make new tissue organs
-develop new medicines
-prevent conditions from improper cell growth
-prevent cancer and birth defects
Challenges of Stem cells
Technical and Biological
-ethical ?'s where should the stem cells come from
-legal limitations-most embryonic studies were haulted when Bush became president
Technical and Biological challenges
-low numbers in adults
-reliability of correct cell types
-rejections
-overgrowth
-decrease in other research
-diseases crossing species
Ethical Questions of stem cells
-blastocyst
-products of in vitro fertilization
-cord and placental blood
-aborted fetuses
-adults
Embryo or fetus
2-celled stage
4-celled stage
2-layered embryo (week 2)
3- layered embryo (week 3)
What are some legel limitations of stem cells
2001-Federal funding limited
2004-17 new stem cell lines made but cannot be used by federally funded research
Ateries
-carry the blood away from the heart
-thick muscular tubes
-lumen hollow part of the tube
-ethelium-lines the tissue
Capillaries
-microscopic
-single layer of epithelial tissue
-site of exchange between blood and cells
-tightly compact
-histones allow white blood cells out
-exchange of gases and nutrients leek out
Sphincters
allow pressure to exchange in the body
-very numerous in the body
-used after eating
Veins
-carry blood toward the heart
-large lumen
-less muscular
-blood pressure is very low
-65% of ur blood is in the veins
-skeletal muscle contraction
What keeps the veins going in the right direction??
-gravity
-breathing
-contraction of skeletal muscle
-valve
Problems associated with veins
-varicose veins
-pregnancy
-women
-genetics
-obesity
Hemorrhiods
can be internal or external
-can be painful itchy, or no symptoms
-diet
-constipation
-veins have been extended and blown up
Heart
2 sides(left and right)
-4 chambers (2 atria 2-ventricles)
-valves