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50 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
how is a system maintained?
by the energy that flows through. the E is dissipated once it flows through
3 aspects of energy:
1) Thermal
2) Trophic
3) Evolutionary
Thermal Energy
ex: water absorbs heat then evaportaes and effects the climate of the area.
differential heating of surfaces - climate affected by heating of surfaces.
Trophic
Solar radiation:
SR->plants->H->C->C
----
decomposers->consum->C
Evolutionary
adaptation
success defines by representation of genes in next generation. organisms that capture more E, have more E for reprodution and thus more likely to be represented in next generation.
Standing Crop
the amount of 'stuff' available at each trophic level
primary productivity
rate of E capture/time. used for respiration, reproduction, growth, etc.
What is the predominant form of E??
Gravity - attratction of masses. produces lights, pulls H20 down, etc.
First law of thermodynamics
conservation of energy - no E created of destroyed during transfer. "Book-Keeping"
Darwin-Lotka Law
Natural selection favors systems that aren't necessarily efficient but have the max E flow through system. Ex: Antelope
2nd law of thermodynamics
every energy conversion leads to loss of free E in the system. system tends to degrade and go to a more probably state. "No Free Lunch"
Energy subtidaries
Ex: Salt marshes - the energy from decomposition in salt marshes is put into system to supply estuaries. salt marsh makes the whole region productive. ex: fossil fuels -> for every 1 cal. corn produced use 5.6 cal of fossil fuels.
Three energy sources:
-Solar radiation -99.98%
-geothermal energy - E from the center of the earth
-Tidal - attraction of moon and earth causes gravity pull that produces tides.
Energy fixation
So - incident solar radiation
S5 - energy fixed by photosynthesis
I - ingestion(amount of E in ailmentary track)
A - assimilation (amount of E absorbed from gut)
R - respiration (amount of E used in metabolism and heat production)
NP -net productivity (E accumulated after resp.)
Assimilation Ratio /Efficiency
Plants Problem
They have low assimilation. Only a certain amount of the E they take in can be used.
How do plants obatin energy
Radial Symmetry
Herbavoires
they get more E than plants b/c they eat subtances w/ similar bonds as themselves. problem : some plants have high gag factor and cellulose. ASSIMILATION DEPENDS ON QUALITY
Carnivoires
high assimilation. eat stuff they can utilize and break down
trend:
assimilation increases w/ higher trophic levels...
Respiratory Efficient:
Repiration (at a level n) / assimilation (at level n)
-- rates increase w/ trophic levels. carn. have to track down food. her. thermoregulate over plants.
Growth Efficient:
NP / A
-- NP decreases at higher trophic levels. amount of E for reproduction decreases.
Progress Efficiency
(comparing assimilation at different levels)
A(n) / A(n-1)
-- how much E passed up food chain. every E conversion, 90% of E lost.
effects of climate
a warmer climate causes the plants to have a higher resp. eff....have to have increaed rates of resp. in warmer conditions b/c plants don't thermoregulate.
why do salt marshes have a high yield?
energy substidy - the tides!
Cedar Bog Lake
has low producitivity. Peet in the H20 uses most of the energy.
Silver Springs
high productivity. has a substidy -> turtle grass supply E.
How to increase the amount of E available???
drop a trophic level
x: humans become vegetarians
Why women colder than men
men eat more food b/c they have less body fat than women. women more efficient at keeping warm. allow extremeties to get cold to keep center warm.
trend of large animals:
live in warmer climates...don't have to expend E to thermoregulate
why do large animals live in open areas??
1) grasses grow fast
2) grasses don't produce woody material
3)meristems low (will grow back quickly)
4) seeds
-- contain most highly usable material
dinosaurs
lived in mesosoic. had more usable plants. warmer climates. has high body temps so they didn't have to thermoregulate.
biomagnification
low levels of one substance at one trophic level is multiplied at higher levels (ex: isotopes from bombs after WWII)
Where did oxygen originally come from??
phytoplankton in ocean.
how did organisms move from the aquatic to terrestrial?
the ozone shielded organisms from UV.
plant and animal compounds
plant compounds are oxidized (low E state) and animal compounds are reduced (high E state)
Cycle:
low E -> high E compounds
Where elements stored:
C ->fossil fuels, CaCO3
H -> H20
N -> rock
S -> rock
P -> rock
biogeochemical cycling
cycling of critical nutrients. gases cycle rapidly.
problem w/ biogeochemical cycling...
loss of nutrients, too many nutrients (we add nutrients to soil)
Evolutionary Process
getting genes expressed that gives the organisms a hands up in the environment
Genetic Variation
-crossing over
-ind. assortment - mat/pat. chromosomes line up randomly along cneter
-random fertilization - random comb. of haploid cells
Complementary genes
- both dominant genes need to be present for a certain trait (ex: brown color)
pleiotrophy, epistatis, and heteroisis
-pleitrophy - gene has more than one effect (ex: sickle-cell)
-epistasis - one gene suresses the expression of another (ex: C controls what happens to B, if C not present leads to albino)
-heterosis - heterozygous advantage
Hardy-weinberg
a population will retain allele freq. as long as no outside source of variation is present.
Hardy-Weinberg assumptions:
large pop. size
no gene flow from outside
no net mutation
random mating
no selection
The Founder Effect:
organisms that colonize an island are not representative of the total pop.
Bottleneck
pop. #'s decrease during certain times. other times pop size abundant. leads to little genetic diversity
Natural Selction
acts of phenotypes of individuals. genotype of generations.
phenotypic plasticity
organisms respons their phenotype to the environment (ex: dogwood shapes)
kinds of selection
stabilizing, directional