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30 Cards in this Set

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What are the three methods by which prokaryotes transfer genetic material?
transformation, translation, and conjugation
Transformation
DNA is taken up from the outside environment and integrated into the bacterial genome
Transduction
DNA or RNA transferred from one cell to another by a virus
Conjugation
genetic information is directly transferred via a temporary connection known as the conjugation bridge
Generalized transduction
DNA from any part of the host's chromosome becomes a part of the viral genome, replacing the viral genmome
Specialized transduction
DNA from a specific part of the of the host's chromosome becomes part of the viral genome, usually replacing some viral genes
Hfr cells
happens when the F plasmid becomes integrated into the genome and frequency of recombination is high when the cell trasports its genome to another cell
What are Hfr cells often used for?
figuring out the order of genes on a bacterial chromosome
Average size of prokaryote?
1-10 um
Average size of eukaryotes?
10-100 um
Size of virus?
20-300 nm
Another name for virus
obligate intracellular parasite
RNA replicase
transcribes new RNA from an RNA template
Retroviruses need what enzyme?
reverse transcriptase
How does a virus escape immune detection?
by integrating into the genome
Retroviruses
a special group of RNA viruses
HIV is a type of...?
Retrovirus
Lytic cycle
virus takes control of cell and makes it burst soon after it replicates enough of itself
Lysogenic cyle
viral DNA becomes integrated into the genome and in prophage form and remains dormant until some stimulus makes it "abandon ship"
Most fungi possess cell walls made of what?
Chitin
Are all fungi heterotrophs?
Yes
T/F

Fungi release enzymes into their environment that breakdown complex molecules which they then absorb from their surrounding.
T
Multicellular fungi have what and are called?
hyphae, mycelium
Mushrooms
filamentous fungi, the edible part is called the fruiting body
Molds
filamentous fungi, some called imperfect fungi since they have no known secual stages and reproduce only asexually
Yeasts
unicellular fungi, reproduce via budding, often used as a model for studying eukaryotic cells
Lichens
symbiotic joining of fungi and algae

-photosynthetic algae provides the fungi with food while the fungi provides an ideal area for the growth of the algae
T/F

Fungi produce either sexually or asexually.
T
Plasmogamy
cell fussion of haploid nuclei
Karyogamy
nuclear fussion