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45 Cards in this Set

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What type of major molecule is ATP for the all cells?
major energy molecule
Can cells use the energy stored in the bonds of a glocose molecule or a fatty acid molecule directly?
No
What do they convert energy stored in food?
ATP molecules (usable energy)
What does your body use to break down the glucose molecule into small ATP molecules?
the Mitochondria
Where is energy stored in within the ATP molecule?
Phosphate bond
What process is needed for the phosphate bonds to break off from the whole molecule?
hydrolysis
ATP→_?_ when hydrolysis takes place?
ADP- b/c one phosphate group comes off. So its diphosphate
What type of energy releasing reaction is it when the ATP→ADP+P?
Exergonic
What type of reaction is it when energy is stored?
Endergonic (ADP+P→ATP)
What is Passive Transport?
its movement of substances across the cell membrane w/out any energy input by the cell.
What are some types of passive transport movements?
Diffusion, Osmosis, Facilitated Diffusion, and Ion Channels
What is Diffusion?
movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
Molecules are in constant motion. But what causes Diffusion?
It is caused by kinetic energy of molecules
What is it called when substances diffuse equally throughout another substance?
equilibrium
What are some examples of molecules that can go through the cell membrane?
oxygen, carbon dioxide, lipids, and water.
What is Osmosis?
its the process by which water molecules diffuse across a cell membrane from an area of high to low conc.
What is a hypotonic solution?
it is when there is less water in cell so water flows into the cell
What is a hypertonic solution?
it is when there is more water in cell so water flows out of the cell
What is Isotonic?
It is when there is the same amount of water in and out of the cell
For some organisms is it hard to maintain a water balance?
No, b/c their external environment is isotonic
What is Contractile Vacuoles?
It is a vacuole that works like a pump excess water out of the cell.
What do plants have that stop their cells from bursting?
they have cell walls and turgor pressure
What causes a plant to wilt in a hypertonic environment?
plasmolysis
What does facilitated Diffusion do?
Its a process used for molecules that cannot diffuse across the cell membrane either b/c they are too large or may be not be lipid soluble
What is the name of a protein that help transport membranes in or out of the cell?
carrier proteins
What are the three step in the process for facilitated diffusion?
1. molecules binds to carrier proteins
2. carrier protein changes shape in order to sheild molecule from the hydrophobic environment
3. molecule is released on the other side of the membrane
Can ions diffuse through lipid bilayer?
no, there are specific channels for each type of ion are present in cell membrane
T or F
-Some channels are gated or others always open.
T
Can the membrane open a closed channel if stimulated by another cell or hormone?
yes
Active Transport
Molecules transported against their concentration gradient. So it would need energy
What kind of pump is a Sodium- Potassium Pump?
its a protein pump
Do cells need a higher concentration of sodium outside the cell and higher concentration of potassium inside of cell?
yes
What do potassium ions aid in?
in enzyme functions
T of F
-sodium concentration balance must be maintained in order to also maintain osmotic balance
T
Sodium Potassium Pumps are important in sending what impulses?
nerve impulses
what do proton pumps do?
they send H+ or protons across the membrane
What are proton pumps important for?
for parietal cels in stomach to keep pH level low
Where are contractile vacuoles found?
they are found in freshwater organisms that live in hypotonic environments.
What do contractile vacuoles do and what do they prevent?
it pumps extra water out of the cell so that they don't burst
What is Endocytosis?
process in which cells ingest external fluid, macromolecules, and large particles into the cell
(the cell membrane folds inward and forms vesiclesin cell)
What are the two types of Endocytosis?
1. pinocytosis
2. phagocytosis
What is pinocytosis?
It is where it transports solutes or fluids
What is phagocytosis?
it is where it transports large molecules or whole cells
What is exocytosis?
its the process in which vesicles inside the cell fuse with the cell membrance in order to release its contents to the outside
What can exocytosis also be used as?
it can be used to remove waste or for a secretory cell to release its products.