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49 Cards in this Set

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Chemically, all organisms are comprised of the same 4 classes of polymers. These are called ___?
Polysaccharides, proteins, nucleic acids, lipids
Nucleic Acids are broken down to ___, which are used to reassemble nucleic acids that may differ by the ___.
Nucleotides, order.
Amino acids are assembled into long strings called ___.
Proteins
Cells come in two fundamental kinds based on their morphology these are ___ and ___.
Prokaryotic and eukaryotic
Of the two fundamental kinds of cells, which kind are capable of sexual reproduction as we have studied it in class?
Eukaryotic
RNA and DNA are both comprised of nucleotide chains, but differ in serveral important ways. One major difference is the number of chains in a molecule. How many chains in RNA molecules? How many in DNA?
1, 2
Transcription and translation are the two mechanisms that convert the "information" in DNA into the function provided by proteins. Are these processes fundamentally the same or different in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?
Same
Fundamentally, reproduction is transmitting a copy of DNA information to the next cellular generation. DNA has the same basic structure in all cells. Is the mechanism for replicating DNA the same in all cells?
Yes
Chromosomes are composed of two important macromolecules called ___ and ___.
Proteins and DNA
The DNA in each one of our cells is 3-6 meters in length, depending on who is doing the calculation. Why can't we see it?
They are too thin. One needs to see them at the atomic resolution to be able to see.
A karyotype shows information about an individual. How many chromosomes? How many pairs of chromosomes? How many somatic chromosomes? How many pairs of sex chromosomes? What defines the genetic sex of a male of female?
46, 23, 22, 1, XX, XY
Which kind of cell division is responsible for asexual reproduction - mitosis or meiosis?
Mitosis
Which kind of cell division is responsible for sexual reproduction - mitosis or meiosis?
Meiosis
We have 46 chromosomes. After meiosis, how many cells result and how many chromosomes are found in each daughter cell?
23, 4
We have 46 chromosomes. After mitosis, how many cells result and how many chromosomes are found in each daughter cell?
2, 46
Female germ cells are called ___.
Oocytes or eggs
Male germ cells are called ___.
Spermatozoa or sperm
Which germ cell is larger, male or female?
Female
Which kind of germ cell is produced in greater numbers, male or female?
Male
Hormones are made of many different kinds of molecules, specifically lipids, proteins, peptides, and amine compounds. Receptors for hormones are made of one kind of molecule. What kind of molecule?
Protein
Name the three classes of sex steroid hormones.
Androgens, estrogens, progestin.
Each cell in our body contains 46 chromosomes. When a somatic (body) cell divides to form two new cells how many chromosomes does each of the daughter cells possess?
23
When eukaryotic cells, such as those making up our bodies divide to form two daughter cells, is the process sexual or asexual reproduction?
Asexual reproduction
When germ cells form, what happens to the number of chromosomes by the time they form spermatozoa? What is different about meiosis in oocytes?
Divided in half, remains in prophase and doesn't complete meiosis until fertilizaton
If a gonad makes spermatozoa, is it an ovary or is it a testis?
Testis
What kind of cells would be found in the female gonad?
Oocytes or eggs
How many cell divisions occur in the process known as meiosis?
2
Chromosomes exist as homologous pairs. One member of each pair came from each of your parents. During germ cell formation the pairs are spearated. At what stage does this occur?
Meiosis I
There are three kinds of cell-cell signaling that are known to be important for regulating and coordinating the reproductive system: endocrine, paracrine and autocrine. What kind of signaling is being used when follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is released from the pituitary gland and then stimulates the proliferation of ganulosa cells in the ovary?
Autocrine
What kind of signaling is involved when activin is released by gonadotropes and causes them to synthesize FSH?
Autocrine/Paracrine
What kind of molecule would make a cell a target for the glycoprotein hormone luteinizing hormone?
Luteinizing receptor
Where in the cell would you look for the receptor for the hormone estrogen?
Inside the target cell
There are two classes of receptor; nuclear and membrane. One can activate gene activity while the other can activate both enzymes in the cytoplasm as well as gene activity. Which receptor does both?
Membrane
If a zygote has the genotype 46 XY, what is the expected sex of the baby?
Male
If a baby is born with a 46 XY karyotype, but no gonads, do you expect it to resemble a boy or a girl?
Resemble girl
What are the two products of the ovary?
Sex steroids and oocyte or egg
What are the two products of the testis?
Sex steroids and spermatozoa or sperm
What is the functional part of the ovary called?
Follicle
What part of the testis is responsible for germ cell formation?
Seminiferous tubules
What part of the testis is responsible for testosterone synthesis?
Interstitial cells
The female reproductive system consists of two tubes that join together. Which end or ends are open?
Both ends
With respect to the surface of the gonad, what is different about germ cell release between the ovary and the testis?
The ovary releases externally and the testis releases internally.
Semen is composed of fluids and sperm. What glands produce the fluid?
Bulbourethral gland, prostate, seminal vesicle
Sperm taken from the testis are immotile. Is the same true for sperm taken from the tail of the epididymis?
No, they can swim
Name the three main parts of the mature spermatozoa.
Head, mid-piece, tail
GnRH is released from the hypothalamus in a pulsatile manner. What hormone do we measure in humans to detect the pattern of GnRH release?
Luteinizing hormone (LH)
Constant exposure of the gonadotropes to the same concentration GnRH has what paradoxical effect on their function?
***
Episodic release of GnRH after a period of constant release of GnRH has what effect on gonadotropin release?
***
What indicates puberty is occurring or lactational prevention of ovulation is ending? Hint: you measure it in peripheral blood.
Luteinizing hormone (LH)