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42 Cards in this Set

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What are the phylums for seedless non-vascular plants (bryophytes)
phylum hepatophyta (liverworts), phylum anthocerophyta (hornworts), phylum bryophyta (mosses)
Where are mosses located?
deserts, Antarctica, moist areas
Describe bryophytes
seedless, non-vascular, heteromorphic alternation of generations (gametophyte dominant), water necessary for sexual reproduction, no true leaves, stems or roots
What is the plant life cycle called?
alternation of generations
What are the phases of the alternation of generations?
sporophyte-sporangium, spore mother cell, spore (meiosis), gametophyte (2n)-archegonium (egg) or anteridium (sperm)- zygote (fertilization)-embryo-sporophyte
During the sporophytic phase describe the embryo?
is completly dependent on the gametophyte
Main groups of plants are called ?
embryophytes
What are seedless non-vascular plants called? what is a key characteristic of these plants.
bryophytes; they do not have true roots, stems or leaves lack xylem and phloem
What three phylums belong to bryophytes and what are their common names.
Phylum Heptaophyta- liverworts
Phylum Anthocerophtya- horn worts
Phylum Bryophyta- mosses
What is the dominant generation in bryophytes?
gametophyte
What is a term used to describe any plant body that is not differentiated into true root, stem and leaf?
thallus
Describe the structure of mosses.
radially symmetrical plants that are differentiated into leaf-like and stem-like structures
What are three types of liverworts?
simple, complex thalloid and leafy liverworts
What type of liverworts compose the majority of liverworts?
leafy liverworts
What is a term for flat and branched dichotomously?
thalloid
What does bi-sexual mean?
male (sperm-producing) and female (egg-producing) gametes are produced on the same plant
What does unisexual mean?
different individuals are either male or female
What is an archegonia and an antheridia?
archegonia- egg producing structure
antheridia-sperm producing strucutre
gametangia embedded in gametophye
How are the eggs fertilized in liverworts?
sperm swim to eggs and fertilize them at maturity
What does the embryo in liverworts mature into?
a mature sporophyte
What are sporocytes and where are they located?
spore mother cells in the sporophyte; gives rise to four spores
What are gemma cups?
are structures that house gemmae; tiny lens- shaped pieces of thallus that are a form of asexual reproduction in liverworts
Are Marchantia haploid or diploid?
haploid
What kind of roots do bryophytes have?
rhizoids
What are tubular structures of one or more cells, which is used to anchor the thallus to the substrate?
rhizoid
What kind of plant is this? what phylum does it belong?
thallose liverwort
Hepatophyta
Waht kind of plant is this and what Phylum does it belong? is it a female or male?
thallose liverwort
Hepatophyta
female and male
What are antheridiophores and archegoniophores?
antheridiophores- disk-headed branches
archegoniophores- spoke-headed branches w/ archegonia
What is the image of?
a Marchantia archegonium
Is there archegonia on the lower or upper surface of the archegoniophore? what about the anteridia on the antheridiophore?
archegonia aer on the lower surface
antheridia are on the upper surface
What does the "spalsh plateform" on the antheridial disk do?
serves to transfer sperm
Is the sporophyte on the liverworts haploid or diploid?
diploid
Where is the sporophyte located on the liverworts?q
grows through the venter of the archegonial head
What are elaters?
have spirally arranged hygroscopic (moisture-absorbing) wall thickenings, which are sensitive to light and changes in humidity so they aid in spore dispersal
What is the image of?
a Marchantia archegonium
What is this structure?
a sporophyte coming from the archegonial head on a liverwort
identify the spores, elater, stalk and capsule
Describe the structure of a leafy liverwort.
it is bilaterally symmetrical; doesn't have a midrib
What is this an image of? what phylum does it belong to?
leafy liverwort, Hepatophyta
What is different about the Anthoceros hornwort's sporophyte?
contains a basal meristem
Which bryophytic phylum has capsules and what do they look like?
Hornworts; Anthocerophyta
in the sporophyte; appear like horns
What is a protonema?
a system of branching filaments derived from a germinating spore
What are the three types of mosses?
true mosses, peat moss or SPhagnum,