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217 Cards in this Set

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What does vascular mean?
has vessels that circulate fluids throughout the plant; xylem and phloem
What are seedless non-vascular plants?
uses spores – unit of dispersal…bryophyte: liverworts, hornworts, and mosses.
What is a wort?
What are seedless-vascular plants?
lycophytes and pteridophytes
What are seed plants?
seeds are unit of dispersal and all are vascular
What are gymnosperms?
(naked seeds, no fruit; pines, conifers, spruces, ginkgo, cycads),
What are angiosperms?
(covered sperms, flowering plants, broad-leaved plants)
What is the shoot of a plant?
stem, leaves and reproductive parts
What are the buds at the end called and the buds below the end called?
terminal buds, lateral buds
What does a sessile leaf mean?
no petiole
What is systematics?
study of diversity of organisms and their evolutionary history; history of taxa, who evolved from who
What is taxonomy?
naming and identifying and classifying organisms that uses systematics to determine how to name organisms
Who was the first to classify plants? describe him
Theoprastus: 370-285 BC: Student of Aristotle
Father of Botany
Classified organisms by “artificial” (not based on evolution), to identify
Form: herb, shrub, tree
Who was the second person to form plant classification?
Linnaeus: Number and arrangement of stamens of flowers to classify plants
They both looked at plants as unchanging design of creation, no evolution
What are some characteristics of Linnaeus?
Carl Linnaeus
Species Plantarum in 1753.
12 word sentence (poly nomial)
Binomial: genus and species
What is the list of heirarchal classification?
domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species
How do families, phylums and order classification end?
phylum- phyta
family- eae
order- ales
What is the domain and kingdom for plants?
Eukarya, Plantae
Who wrote the origin of species, describe it.
Charles Darwin, noted products of change, reflected evolutionary relationships
What is phylogeny?
genealogical relationship between taxa as hypothesized by a particular person.
What is a node when dealing with phylogenetics?
divergences between two lines of evolution
What does monophyletic mean?
grops composed of an ancestor and all of its descendents; none of the descendents are excluded – 1 cut to find common ancestor
What is paraphyletic?
common ancestor but not all of its descendents
What is polyphyletic?
includes members descended from more than one ancestor line
What is the downfall of phylogenetic classificatioN?
attempts to give formal taxonomic names but only to monophyletic groups
What is a homologous character?
Common origin (inherited), but not necessarily a common function
What is an analogous character?
Common function, but not from same origin (different evolutionary background)
Result of convergent evolution
What is convergent evolution?
similar selective forces action on plants growing in similar environments causing them to have similar appearance
What is claudistics?
most widely used phylogenetic analysis
What all does ferns, pines and oaks have in common? what distinguishes oaks from pines and ferns, what about pines and oaks from ferns?
all have xylem and phloem, oaks have flowers, pines and oaks both have seeds and wood
What are primary metabolites?
-Found in all plant cells
-Necessary for life – photosynthesis, respiration, DNA building and repair
-Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
What are four types of primary metabolites?
carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids and proteins
What are secondary metabolites?
Limited to distribution within plant and among species
-Play a role in well-being of the producer (plant)
-involved in plant/environment interactions
What is an element?
substance that can’t be broken down by ordinary means Ex. Carbon
What is a molecule?
smallest particle of a substance that retains the chemical and physical properties of the substance and is composed of two or more atoms (Ex. O2)
What is a monomer?
small repeating subunits that together form a polymer
What is a macromolecule?
a polymer, 2 or more monomers/molecules
What is dehydration synthesis?
removal of H and OH = removing 1 H2O (requires energy)- creating something by taking away water
What is hydrolysis?
(Hydro = water, Lysis = cutting/removing) – H from H2O becomes attached to one monomer, OH to another (energy released)
What is dehydration synthesis?
removal of H and OH = removing 1 H2O (requires energy)
(lacking water) (creation)..creating something by taking away water- uses energy
What is hydrolysis?
(Hydro = water, Lysis = cutting/removing) – H from H2O becomes attached to one monomer, OH to another (energy released)-releases energy
Describe carboyhydrates
Most abundant organic molecules in nature
Primary energy-storage molecule
Forms a variety of structural components of living cells (lot in cell walls)
Formed from _sugar_ molecules
What are the three basic kinds of sugar molecules and what do they form?
Three basic kinds: mono-, di-, and polysaccharides
What is the simplest carbon? what is the original formula? and some examples?
fructose, glucose and ribose
Describe sugars.
monosaccharides, hydrophillic-dissolve in water
What does hydrophillic mean?
love water
Describe glucose.
Produced by photosynthesis
Primary source of energy
NOT form transported in plants
Describe fructose.
Isomer of glucose,
Sweeter than glucose
Found in fruits
What are disacharrides?
formed after the dehydration synthesis of monosaccharides
How is sucrose formed? describe sucrose
from glucose or fructose using dehydration synthesis- The form in which sugar is transported in most plants FROM photosynthetic cells TO other parts of plant body- a lot of energy stored in sucrose
What are two types or polysaccharides, describe both.
starch-Consists of several hundred thousand coiled glucose molecules
Primary storage polysaccharide in plants
cellulose-Also chains of glucose molecules
Structural polysaccharide – cell walls-Most abundant organic compound
What forms cell walls and what type of carbohydrate is it? describe it
cellulose, polysaccharide- 3,000-10,000 glucose molecules, forms fibrous parts of cell walls, difficult to digest
Name the types of monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides.
Monosaccharides- glucose, fructose and ribose
poly- cellulose and starch
In order for starch to be used for energy what does it have to become and to be transported what does it have to become? how does it become this?
glucose and fructose, sucrose and must be hydrolyzed
How do we make glucose available for our bodies?
we hydrolyze starch into glucose for energy
What are some main starchy foods we eat from the temperate region, tropical region?
temperate- potatoes, wheat, corn
tropical- yams, sweet potatoes, taro, tapoica
Describe lipids.
Fats and fat-like substances
Hydrophobic – do not dissolve in water
Insoluble in water
Energy-storage molecules-structural purposes-phospholipids, waxes
What are oils and what are fats? what are they called? and what makes them up?
fats- lipids as a solid at room temp.
oils- lipids as a liquid at room temp
both have 2 times more energy- compared to carbs- called tri-glycerides, 3 fatty acids + 1 glycerol
What are phospholipids?
modified triglycerides, 2 fatty acids + 1 glycerol + phosphate group-negatively charged, fatty acid end-non-polar
What is a phospholipid bi-layer?
polar heads with non-polar tails, it is the cell membrane
Where are lipids found in plants?
on the cell walls as a protective tissue, usually on the outside surface of the plant
What is wax? where is it found
long chain of fatty acid + long chain of alcohol group-usually found on leaf and stem surfaces or young shoots, embedded in cutin or suberin
What are cuticles?
wax embedded in cutin
What are proteins?
In most non-plant living organisms: make up 50% or more of dry weight
Less than 50% in plants because of high cellulose content-Polymers of amino acids arranged linearly
What are specialized proteins?
In seeds function as storage forms of amino acids to be used by the embryo when by the embryo when it starts to grow when it germinates
Where are lipids, proteins, specialized proteins, phospholipids found in plants?
specialized proteins- seeds, proteins- seeds, phospholipids-cell walls, cell membrane
What is Rubisco?
an enzyme, catalyst, most plentiful protein int he world, used for photosynthesis
What are nucleic acids?
Long chains of nucleotides (phosphate group, sugar, nitrogenous base-A,T,C,G)
What are roots?
a root is a plant structure that obtains food and water from the soil, stores energy, and provides support for the plant. Most roots grow underground.
What is a stem?
the main support of the plant
What makes up carbohydrates?
carbon + water
What carbohydrate is the primary storage unit? Which one is transported? Which one is used primarily to make up cell walls?
starch, sucrose, cellulose
How is water loss prevented from plant surfaces?
phospholipid bilayer, hydrophobic-nonpolar tails are on outside
What are the functions of secondary metabolites?
defense against herbivores, pathogens and competitors, protection from uv rays, attraction using pollination and seed dispersal, response to wounding
Where are secondary metabolites mostly stored?
in vacuoles
What are the major classes of secondary compounds (metabolites)?
1. alkaloids and other nitrogenous compounds
3. phenolics
What are some examples of alkaloids and other nitrogenous compounds? describe their characteristics.
Morphine, cocaine, quinine, caffeine, nicotine
Most important medicinal or pharmacologically active compounds
Bitter tasting
Nitrogenous compounds
Most end in -ine
10,000 known, many more yet to be discovered
What is the first alkaloid to be discovered and describe.
1st alkaloid to be discovered
1806, acts directly on the central nervous system, cough suppressant
Highly addictive
Describe cocaine.
Leaves from the coca plant which is a small shrubbery tree, Chewing the leaves helps to relieve altitude sickness, lowers hunger
an alkaloid nitrogenous compound, secondary metabolite
describe caffiene.
Leaves of the coffee plant have caffeine in it, antiherbivore and antifungal, allelopathic (inhibits mitosis in roots of plants) chemicals
alkaloid nitrogenous compound, secondary metabolite
What does allelophatic mean?
inhibits mitosis in roots of plants
What is the history behind coca-cola?
Formulated in the late 1800’s
Medicine + drink = good
Cocaine + caffeine + aphrodisiac + alcohol = Coca-Cola
1900’s with prohibition, swapped out alcohol with sugar, citric flavor
Describe nicotine.
found in tobacco plants, transported to leaves, highly toxic, anti-herbivorous, alkaloid nitrogenous compound, secondary metabolite
Describe quinine.
Comes from the bark from the cinchona tree
Used against malaria
alkaloid nitrogenous compound, secondary metabolite
Describe the second type of secondary metabolite.
By far largest class of secondary metabolites
Over 22,000 terpenoid compounds described
or terpenes*
What is the simplest kind of terpenoid/terpene?
Simplest is a hydrocarbon called isoprene
Isoprene is produced when plants are synthesizing, contributes to smog, protects against the sun
Describe terpenes as essential oil forms.
2-3 isoprene units
Highly volatile – changes readily from solid/liquid to a vapor
Contribute to “essence” of plants
Synthesized and stored in glandular hairs (trichomes)
Deter herbivores, protect against fungi and bacteria
Produced by flowers to attract insect pollinators to flowers
What are trichomes?
grandular hairs
Describe terpene as the form of taxol.
bark, Anticancer compound, but now it’s synthesized
Describe the terpenoid as the form of rubber.
Largest known terpenoid
From milky fluid called LATEX (like from the poppy)
Has 400-100,000+ isoprene units
About 1,800 species have rubber
What is the third secondary metabolite compound group? describe it.
Phenolics, All have hydroxyl group (-OH) attached to ring of six carbons containing three double bonds
Almost universally in plants
Accumulate in all plant parts
Function of many is still unknown
Describe the Phenolics group Flavonoids.
Water-soluble PIGMENTS
Present in vacuoles
Largest group of phenolics
Over 3,00 describe
Lower cholesterol
Anthocyanins (reddish/blue/purple colors in plants), flavones, flavonols (yellowish/ivory colors)
What are anthocyanins?
reddish/blue/purple colors in plants
Describe the Phenolic's group Tannins.
Most important deterrents to herbivores in higher plants (angiosperms): bind and precipitate proteins
High concentration in leaves of woody plants
Sequestered in vacuoles
Used to tan leather
Describe the Phenolic's group Legnin.
Deposited in cell wall
Adds compressive strength and stiffness
Waterproof cells
Added in response to injury or attack by herbivores/pathogens
After cellulose, most abundant organic compound on Earth
What are some medicinal and non-medicinal uses of secondary metabolites?
morphine-cough suppressant, cocaine-relieves altitude stress
quinine- used to treat malaria
Which secondary metabolites are found in plant vacuoles? Which in cell walls?
flavonoids, tannins, nicotine- lignin
Which secondary compound is produced in response to attack or injury?
Which secondary compound is found in many plants to deter herbivores?
What do plant cells have that animal cells dont?
1. Cell wall – plants get rigidity from cell walls
2. Plastids
3. Large, central vacuoles
What are plastids?
organelles in the cytoplasm that have pigments in them, chloroplasts are a type of plastid
What are vacuoles?
A small cavity in the cytoplasm of a cell, bound by a single membrane and containing water, food, or metabolic waste. -in mature plant cells there is usually one large vacuole.
What goes on in a plant cell?
Sensing the environment
Gathering nutrients
Storing products
Excrete waste
Defend itself
Move away or toward
What are the different types of cells that exist?
cells form tissues, tissues form organs (stem, roots and leaves)
What are the main two components of a cell?
cell wall and protoplasts
What are protoplasts and what does this include for the makeup of a cell?
everything except the cell wall of a cell, in the cytoplasm there is:
organelles, system of membranes (Golgi Apparatus and ER), other non-membrane stuff (ribosomes,microtibules) and cytosol, and then there is the nucleus- disposes of the cell wall on the outside of cell memebrane
What are organelles?
specialized parts of the cell that store food, discharge waste, produce energy, etc.
What does the cell wall do?
Limits size of protoplast
Contributes to the final form of the plant organ
Structure helps determine cell function
Permeable to water
Plays a role in absorption, transport, secretion of substances
Plays active role in defense
How does the cell wall play an active defense role?
Limits size of protoplast
Contributes to the final form of the plant organ
Structure helps determine cell function
Permeable to water
Plays a role in absorption, transport, secretion of substances
Plays active role in defense
then has a chemical or physical defense
How does the cell wall have a chemical defense? physical defense?
Phytoalexins: antibiotics toxic to pathogens
physical-Lignin: reduces mechanical penetration and reduces diffusions of enzymes and toxins from pathogen
What is lignification?
the deposit of wood in cell walls to turn woody- replaces water in cell wall
How does cellulose make upt he cell wall?
bundled into microfibrils
What is pectin?
– hydrophilic gives
plasticity (important in expansion)
-part of the cell wall
What is hemicellulose?
tethers cellulose microfibrils
Important in regulating enlargment of cell
What does the primary cell wall also contain?
lignin, glycoproteins, fats, enzymes
What are glycoproteins?
structural proteins
Proteins with sugar attached (Glyco - sugar)
Adds strength to cell wall as it’s laid down
What is the function of the middle lamella?
Region of UNION between primary cell walls of adjacent cells
Laid OUTSIDE of primary cell wall. Composed mainly of pectins
Cements primary walls together
Deposited while cell is increasing in size
What are plasmodesmata? and where do they occur?
A strand of cytoplasm that passes through openings in cell walls and connects the protoplasts of adjacent living plant cells., cell wall where it is thinner
What kind of cells are the only cells that have a secondary wall? when do they form?
actively dividing cells, when the cell has stopped growing, mature cells lose their primary wall and change
What is suberin?
a waxy substance found in higher plants, main function is to prevent water from penetrating the tissue
Describe a secondary cell wall.
Differ in orientation of microfibrils
Secondary wall are rigid and not easily stretched
More abundant cellulose (40-80% more than primary walls)
Pectins lacking
Structural proteins and enzymes lacking
Cellulose microfibrils become embedded in lignin
HOw is communicatin from cell to cell possible if there is a secondary cell wall?
Cell to cell communication is possible through pits in the secondary cell wall that allow plasmodesma to connect cells through the secondary cell walls.
What function of cells would require them to have thick cell walls, thin cell walls?
thick- used for support
thin-used for storing, manufacturing or processing of food
How do fluids and dissolved substances get frrom cell to cell?
pass through cytoplasm strands that are found in tiny openings called pits of the primary cell wall-go through plasmodesmata-connects the protoplasts
Where is information stored, sent and processed in a cell?
stored in nucleus, processed in cytoplasm and then sent to different parts of the cell
Describe the nucleus of a cell.
in protoplast, most conspicuous generally, other than in green cells where chloroplasts may obscure it
Describe the nuclear envelope.
2 membranes, complex pores only allowing certain substances through, may be continuous with ER
What is found in the nucleus?
nucleolus- primarily rna, rRNA is formed and transferred out out through nuclear pores to be formed into ribosomes
Chromatin – DNA and proteins
What does haploid mean?
– gametes, half of somatic cells, single set “n”
What does diploid mean?
somatic cells, two sets of “n”
What is polyploid? then what is allopolyploid and autopolyploid?
is the condition of some biological cells and organisms manifested by the presence of more than two homologous sets of chromosomes. allopolyploid-when plant species hybridize
autopolyploid-own copy of chromosomes
Describe the plasma membrane of the plant cell.
Delicate, semi-permeable structure
VITAL to regulating movement of substances into and out of the cell-covers the protoplasts-very thin
Also involved in the PRODUCTION and ASSEMBLY of cellulose for cell walls
The outside of the cell is composed of what?
40-50% lipids, 50-60% proteins
What is the function of the ER? rough er? smooth er?
within cytoplasm, Facilitates cellular communication and channeling of materials
Synthesis of membranes for other organelles
rough ER- syntheiss,secretion or storage for proteins
smooth er- secretion of lipids (for membranes)
Describe oil bodies.
don't have membranes around them, 45% weight of seeds, found in fruits and seeds
When are plasmodemata formed most often?
– many formed when strands of tubular ER are trapped during cell divisions
Why are ribosomes not an organelle? what are they made up of?
because they don't have a membrane-within cytoplasm- made up of RNA
What is cytosol?
intercellular fluid, enables protein syntheisis b/c forms part of the ribosomes
What is the golgi apparatus? the more evolved the golgi complex is..the what??
made up of dictyosomes, the less dictyosomes, sends and receives vessicles from ER
Describe the Golgi apparatus.
Involved in synthesis and secretion of NON-CELLULOSE polysaccharides that get incorporated into CELL WALL.
They are assembled within and collect in small vesicles that are pinched off from the margins.
Also process and secrete glycoproteins that are transferred TO them from the rough ER via transition vesicles.
What are plastids, where are they found. name some.
Any of several pigmented organelles having various physiological functions, such as the synthesis and storage of food
in cytoplasm, chloroplast, chromoplast and leucoplast
Name and define the parts of a chloroplast.
Thylakoid – membrane, where photosynthesis occurs
Granum (pl. grana) – more than one thylakoid
Stroma – fluid in chloroplast that is not a thylakoid or DNA
Grana thylakoids - circular
Stroma Thylakoid – branching thylakoid
Describe a chloroplast.
Site of photosynthesis
Contain chlorophylls and carotenoids
40-50 chloroplast in single cell of middle of leaf
Often have start grains and oil droplets in stroma
What are starch grains and stroma?
Starch grains – temporary storage products
Stroma – contains ribosomes and DNA (circular DNA)
found in chloroplasts
Describe a chromoplast.
No chlorophyll
Instead carotenoids
Important for pigmentation for pollination and seed dispersal
Describe a leucoplast.
a plastid, Non-pigmented
Synthesize starch
Synthesize oils
Can develop into chloroplasts
What is the mitochondrion?
Powerhouse – energy release from organic molecules by cellular respiration
2 membranes
Originate from division of old mitochondria
What is the serial endosymbiotic theory?
Mitochondria and chloroplasts – descendants of bacteria taken up and adopted by host cell
What is an endysymbiont?
organism that lives within another, dissimilar organism
What is the evidence that supports the serial endosymbiotic theory?
Organelles with 2 membranes
Inner from original
Outer from host
Chromosomes in loops of DNA like bacteria
What are microbodies?
perxisomes-Break down hydrogen peroxide
Glycosomes – seeds, break down starch into sucrose
found in cytoplasm
How large can a vacuole become?
up to 90% of the cell
cell reproduction = what? which then = what?
cell division- mitosis (nuclear division) and cytokinesis (cytoplasm division)
How do organisms grow?
by cell division and enlargement
Mitosis occurs when?
During growth and development of an embryo and adult
Replace cells in an adult
Asexual reproduction
Some phases of sexual reproduction
Where is the zone of cell division in a plant? elongation? permanent tissues?
apical meristem, epidermis,
- pith, cortex and vascular bundle
How do apical meristems grow?
up and down
Describe interphase of mitosis.
nucleus moves to the center of the cell
Describe prophase of mitosis.
microtibules line up in center of cell, chromosomes condense
Describe the metaphase, telophase and cytokinesis phase of mitosis.
metaphase-forms the mitotic spindle
telophase- golgi vessicles fuse to form cell plate- golgi complex
cytokinesis- daughter chromosomes reach opposite poles
What are phragmoplasts?
is a barrel-shaped system of microtubules that forms between two daughter nuclei
HOw is a cell plate formed?
fusion of vesicles come from golgi complex-guided into position by microtubules-non-cellulostic polysaccharides (glycoproteins)
What makes up the cytoskeleton?
actin filaments and microtubules
Describe interphase after cytokinesis.
Preceded by phragmoplast
Grows outward until reaches wals of dividing cell, completing separation
Fuses with the cell wall exactly where the preprophase band was
What is the domain and kingdom for Algae?
Eukarya and Protista
What are some examples of algae that show the different range of sizes algae has?
microscopic phytoplankton, macroscopic phytoplankton, kelp (seaweed)
What is the history behind algae?
Algae contain chlorophyll (a, b, or c)

The earliest life-forms on Earth were early ancestors of Cyanobacteria
Stromatolites (CaCO3 deposited by cyanobacteria) have been dated to 2.7 billion years before present (byp)- so produce oxygen as a byproduct of photosynthesis
green algae and plants share a common ancestery
Why are Algae the most impt. photosynthesizing organims on earth?
Algae capture more solar energy and produce more oxygen than all plants are combined
Describe Blue-Green Algae. What is its domain?
photosynthetic, produce oxygen
photosystems I and II
Chlorophyll a
Phycobilins Accessory Pigments
Precursors of Eukaryote Algae chloroplasts
Survive & thrive in a wide range of environmental conditions
Describe Phycobilins Accessory Pigments. What are two different kinds?
Phycocyanin (blue)
Phycoerythrin (red)
Absorb low light intensities
Absorb light that chlorophyll cannot
What is a photosystem?
is an enzyme which uses light to reduce molecules
what are some characteristics of algae?
Autotrophic (produce own food) Protists
Diverse group of simple, plantlike organisms
Lack vascular tissues
Lack true roots, stems or leaves
Chlorophyll a is the principle photosynthetic pigment
Most (not all) algae photosynthesize
What are the modes of reproduction for algae? what about life history?
Sexual and asexual
Single celled gametangia
Lack multicellular reproductive organs, life history has 1,2 or 3 stages while most plants have 2 (gametophyte and sporophyte)
What is the phyla for Eukaryotic green algae? Name the typical forms, major photosynthetic pigments, storage product, cell wall composition, ?
Chlorophyta, single cells, colonies, simple and branched filaments, complex forms
-chlorophylls a & b, carotenoids
- starch
What belongs to the "Green Plants Clade"?
green algae, bryophytes and vascular plants
What do the cells of green algae resemble and why? describe them.
plant cells because they have chlorophyll's a & b and they store starch in plastids
diverse cell shapes, common in plankton and attached to surfaces
What does phragmoplasts suggest during cell division about green algae relationships?
that Charophyceae green algae group is the closest relative to plants
Describe filamentous green algae mats.
May cover lake sediments and water surfaces
May clog filters at water treatment plants
Common nuisance filamentous green algae
How is algae useful?
thickener in foods-red & brown algae
vegetable food- brown, green algae, nori
toothpaste, insectosides (diatom frustules), soil enhancers
green soil algae add mucilage to loosen soil
What are embryophytes?
multi-cellular sporophyte embryo, sporangium, gametangia, cuticle
What is meiosis?
two successive nuclear divisions in which # is reduced from diploid (2n) to haploid (n) and segregation of genes occurs. Gametes or spores may result
What is gametic meiosis?
Product of meiosis is haploid gametes
Diploid cells produce haploid gametes though meiosis which are then fertilized to form a zygote
What is sporic meiosis? describe the alternation of generations
Product of meiosis is haploid spores
Diploid sporophyte ->sporocyte spore mother cell -> meiosis -> spore -> mitosis ->
gametophyte (plant that produces the gametes) ->gametes which fertilize to form the zygote
What is the Alternation of Heteromorphic generations?
alternation between a diploid (2n) sporophyte stage and a haploid gametophyte stage
What is a gametophyte?
haploid, gamete-producing generation (n) (thallus-vegetative tissue of some non-moving organisms,tissue)
What is a sporophyte?
: Diploid, spore-producing generation (2n)
What does isomorphic and heteromorphic mean?
isomorphic- looks the same
heteromorphic- looks different
What is gametangium?
cells or structures where the gametes are produced
What does anther and anteridium mean?
sperm producing
Antheridium: structure that produces sperm
What does arch, archephore and antheridiophore, archegoniophore mean?
arch- egg-producing
antheridiophore-stucture that bears the antheridia
archegoniophore-structure that bears the archegonia-egg producing structure
What does unisexual and bisexual mean in terms of alternation of heteromorphic generations?
unisexual-produce one type of gamete
bisexual- produce both types of gametes
What are the rules for the Alternation of generations?
First cell of any gametophyte  spore Last cell is the gamete
Any cell of gametophyte is haploid (n)
First cell of sporophyte  zygote Last cell is  sporocyte (spore mother cell)
Any cell of a sporophyte is diploid (2n)
Change from sporophyte to gametophyte generation occurs through meiosis
Change from gametophyte to sporophyte is through fertilization (syngamy
What are the 3 phyla for bryophytes? how many species total?
Phylum Hepatophyta-liverworts
Phylum Anthocerophyta- hornwords
Phylum Bryophyta-mosses
What increases the evidence that the first plants were much like bryophytes?
Initial colonizers of bare rock and soil
Are bryophytes a monophyletic group>
no because they dont' contain vascular plants
What are some special characteristics of bryophytes?
Bryophytes don’t have zylem and phloem (water and food-conducing tissues) = non-vascular
Some bryophytes have specialized conducting tissue, but water-conducing cells are not lignified
Like vascular plants, they have alternating heteromorphic gametophytic and sporophytic generations
Seedless = seedless non-vascular plants
Describe some reproduction characteristics of bryophytes.
Gametophyte is nutritionally independent from and usually LARGER than sporophyte
Sporophyte is nutritionally dependent on the gametophyte
Gametophyte > Sporophyte
It is the OPPOSITE in vascular plants.
Clear evolutionary trend towards “dominance” of sporophyte and “suppression” of the gametophyte
What does thallus and thalloid mean?
Thallus: flat undifferentiated body (no roots, leaves, stems)
Thalloid: flat and branched dichotomously
What is the Doctrine of Signatures?
The idea that god has marked everything with a sign or signature
The sign was an indication of the purpose for the creation of the item
Any plant part that resembled a human body part would be useful in healing that body part if it was diseased or hurting
What is Marchantia?
a thalloid liver wort that Grows on rocks and moist soil, first to come back after fire
Unisexual- separate male and female gametophytes
Which one is male and which one is female, antheridium and archegonium? part of the gametangium
Anter- male
Arche- female
What are species gametophores that the marchantia has? diploid or haploid? and what are they?
Antheriophores-stalk producing the houses for male gametes /Archegoniophores-stalk producing the houses for female gametes
All are haploid
Describe the anteridial head.
biflagellate- 2 flagella
What is a venter?
a swollen base
What is a calyptra?
Venter that has undergone mitosis, haploid
What does the "foot" do in sexual reproduction for Marchantia?
sporophyte gets food connection to gametophyte
What are elaters?
aid spores in projection/distance
Bryophyte spores (and other plant species) are encased in wall impregnated with?
SPOROPOLLENIN – the most decay- and chemical-resistant bipolymer known
What are two stages of Asexual reproduction?
fragmentation, gemmae-Each one can produce a gametophyte
How many species are in the Antherocerophyta phylum? describe the phylum and how spores are released,
100 species, hornworts- numerous unbranched sporophytes, mature sporophyte splits open and releases spores
Name three types of mosses in the Phylum Bryophyta and three fake mosses.
true mosses, peat mosses and granite mosses
-spanish moss, club moss and reindeer moss
What is the Order for True mosses?
Describe the Polytrichum life cycle.
Male and female gametophytes
Unbranched sporophyte
Specialized spore dispersal processes
-spores become germinated unbranched-now called protonema-bud sprouts and become young gametophytes with rhizoid branching- then haploid gametophytes produced-then sperm after raindrop swims to egg- fertilization occurs (sygnapy)-becomes zygote-then matures into sporophyte after meiosis
What is the Order for Peat Mosses? describe
Sphagnum-Highly absorbent
Decay-resistant PHENOLICS
Increases acidity by releasing H+ ions
What happens when heat and pressure is applied to peat?
Peat is covered by sedimentary rock
Put under pressure
Compressed into coal
Where are perisomes found?
only in true mosses
What is the function of a rhizoid?
Help anchor, do not take up water or nutrients up