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63 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
a kind of organic compound that is insoluble in water, such as fats and steroids
referring to the molecular attraction to water
one of the two protein filaments in a muscle cell that function in contraction
a plastid containing chlorophyll; the site of photosynthesis
DNA and protein in a coiled, rod-shaped form that occurs during cell division
a fold of the inner membrane of mitochondria
a network of long protein strands in the cytosol that helps maintain the shape and size of a eukaryotic cell
referring to the molecular repulsion of water
a complex lipid having two fatty acids joined by a molecule of glycerol
Nucleic acids
and organic molecule, DNA or RNA that stores and carries important information for cell function
a monomer of DNA and RNA, consisting of nitrogen base, a sugar, and phosphate group
a lipid made of three fatty acid molecules and one glycerol molecule
a type of structural lipid
the DNA and proteins in the nucleus of a nondividing cell
Cell membrane
the lipid bilayer that forms the outer boundary of a cell
a unicellular organism that lacks a nucleus and membrane-bound organelle
a niarlike organelle that extends from a cell and functions in locomotion or in the movement of substances across the surface
the region of a cell between the cell membrane and the nucleus
Cell Theory
the theory is that all things are made up of cells, they are the basic unit of organisms, and that they come from the reproduction of other cells
the core of protons and neutrons; in a eukaryotic cell, the organelle that contains most of the DNA and directs the activities
one of several formed bodies with a specialized function that is suspended in the cytoplasm and found in the eukaryotic cells
Cell Wall
a rigid structure that surrounds the cells of plants, fungi, many protests and most bacteria
Ribonucleic acid
a nucleic acid romposed of a single strand and distinguished from DNA by containing ribso and uracil
a membrane-bound structure that are the basic units of life
organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of about two hydrogen atoms to one oxygen atom.
compounds like these sugars, with a single chemical formula but different forms
a complex molecule composed of three or more monosaccharides
Amino acids
when the monomer building blocks of proteins share a basic sturcture
Peptide bond
a covalent bond between two amino acids
a part, substance, or element that lies beneath and supports another; the ractant in any enzyme-catalyzed reaction
Fatty acids
a monomer that is part of most lipids
a monomer of a carbohydrate
when two monosaccharide combine in a condensation reaction to form a double sugar
organic compounds composed mainly of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
when two amino acids bond
a long chain of several amino acids
the gelatin like aqueous fluid that bathes the organelles on the inside of the cell membrane
Endoplasmic reticulum
a system of membranous tubules and sacs in eukaryotic cells that funcions as a path along wich molecules move from one part of the cell to another
a hairlike structure made up of microtubules that funcion in locomotion
Fluid mosaic
a of cell membrane structure representing the dynamic nature of membrane lipids and proteins
Golgi apparatus
a system of membranes in eukaryoticcells that modifies proteins for export by the cell
Integral protein
a protein iimbedded in the bilayer of the cell membrane
an organelle containing digestive enzymes, existing primarily in animal cells
a polymer chain of the protein acin; the smallest strand in the cytoskeleton
a hollow tube of protein that consititutes the largest strand in the cytoskeleton
the organelle that is the site of aerobic respiration in eukaryotic cells
Nuclear envelope
a double membrane that surrounds the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell
Nuclear matrix
the nuclear skeleton, a shape-maintaining protein
Nuclear pore
a small hole in the nuclear envelope through which substances as between the nucleus and the cytoplasm
the structure in which ribosomes are synthesized and partially assembled; found in most nuclei
Peripheral protein
a protein attached to the interior or exterior surface of the cell membrane
an organelle of plant cells that contains starch, fats, or pigments
an organelle that functions in the synthesis of proteins
Rough endoplasmic reticulum
the portion of the endoplasmic reticulum that contains attached ribosomes
Selectively permeable membrane
a membrane that keeps out some molecules but allows others to pass through
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
thre portion of the endoplasmic reticulum that lacks attached ribosomes
Spindle fiber
one of the microtubules that extend across a dividing eukaryotic cell; assists in the movement of chromosomes
a flattened, membranous sac inside a chloroplast; contains most of the components involvedin the light reactions of photosynthesis
a fluid-filled organelle that stores enqymes or metabolic wastes a plant cell
Colonial organism
a collection of genetically identical cells that live together in a closely connected group
several types of body tissues that together preform a function
Organ system
a group of organs that interact to preform a set of related tasks
in most multicellular organisms; a group of similar cells that carry out a common function