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20 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Define non-target hormone and give an example.
Hormones that affect many cells throughout the body. Ex: adrenalin and hGH
What are the differences between the structures of the nervous system and the endocrine system?
Nervous system is highly organized, controlled using chemical and electrical stimulation, and adjusts for short term change. The endocrine system consists of scattered glands, adjusts for long term change, and is controlled by chemical stimulation only.
What is a tropic hormone?
A hormone that activates other endocrine glands to release hormones.
What is a non-tropic hormone?
Hormone that stimulates other tissues that are not endocrine.
What is a steroid hormone?
A hormone made from cholesterol with complex rings of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen. They are fat soluble.
Trace the hormone movement of a steroid hormone.
Diffuses from the capillaries into interstitial fluid, moves through the cell membrane into the target cell. Combines with receptor molecule in the cytoplasm and moves into the nucleus to attach to chromatin. This activates or deactivates a specific gene which sends mRNA to the ribosomes to produce proteins.
What is a protein hormone?
Hormone made from chains of amino acids and is water soluble.
Define adenyl catalase.
Enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP into cAMP
What is the function of cAMP?
Acts as a messenger and carries the signal from the hormone into the cell.
Why can't protein hormones be taken orally?
Protein hormones are digested in the digestive system.
What is the function of the hypothalamus?
Regulates the pituitary gland through both nerve and hormonal stimulation. Manufactures hormones for storage in the pituitary gland.
Why is the pituitary gland referred to as the 'master gland'?
It releases hormones that activate and control other glands.
Name the two lobes of the pituitary gland and the hormones released by each.
Posterior lobe (front): ADH and Oxytocin
Anterior lobe (back): hGH, PRL, FSH, LH, TSH, ACTH
What is the cause of dwarfism and how can it be prevented?
Is the result of a hyposecretion of hGH during childhood and can be prevented by administering hGH.
Describe the affects of acromegaly and how it is caused.
Occurs when there is a hypersecretion of hGH after the growth plates have fused. Results in the broadening of facial features and wide hands.
What is the function and target of FSH?
FSH targets the testes and the ovaries and stimulates the growth of the follicle.
Name the target and function of TSH.
Stiumulates the thyroid gland to release thyroxine.
What are the functions and targets of LH?
Targets the testes and the ovaries. In males, causes testosterone production. In females, causes ovulation and formation of the corpus luteum which releases progesterone and some estrogen.
What is the target and function of ACTH?
Stimulates the adrenal cortex to release the hormones cortisol and aldosterone.
What is the target and function of PRL?
Stimulates the mammary glands to produce milk.