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24 Cards in this Set

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If a drug was introduced that inhibited carbonic anhydrase, which concentrations of ions would increase in the urine?
1. Na+ and other solutes
2. HCO3-
3. H2O
The kidneys excrete acidic urine when:
more H+ is secreted into tubular lumen than HCO3- are filtered into glomerular filtrate
Secretin stimulates secretion of:
bicarbonate ion in pancreatic juice
Hunger pangs arise from:
peristaltic contractions of the stomach
Bile salts make fats more susceptible to action of lipases by:
increasing surface area of the fat globules
Where is urine formed from?
the fluid in the tubule lumen
What is the function of enterogastrone?
it is released from the duodenum when chyme is fatty, slowing stomach peristalsis, and allowing more time to digest fats
What is the function of CCK?
CCK is secreted in the duodenum in response to chyme and stimulates secretion of pancreatic enzymes/release of bile
What occurs when the glomeruli are unable to filter adequate amounts of fluid?
retention of salt and water; decrease in urine output; excess extracellular fluid in body tissue (edema); cannot excrete urea and urea in blood increases
Where is the vitamin K we need for blood coagulation synthesized?
from intestinal bacteria residing in our colons
What do red blood cells lose during maturation in the bone marrow?
nuclei, mitochondria, and other membranous organelles
How do red blood cells obtain their ATP?
anaerobically, via glycolysis
How does fetal circulation differ from adult circulation?
1. in FC, blood is oxygenated in placenta while in lungs in AC
2. FC route contains 3 shunts that divert blood away from developing liver and lungs
3. Fetal Hb has higher O2 affinity than adult Hb
What are the three shunts involved in fetal circulation and respiration?
1. Foramen Ovale: shunts blood from pulmonary circulation by connecting RA and LA.
2. Ductus Ateriosus: keeps blood in RV from pulmonary artery by shunting it directly to aorta
3. Ductus Venosus: blood bypasses liver and directly to inferior vena cava via this shunt
Where does growth occur in long bones?
epiphyseal plates
What occurs when plasma osmolarity rises above normal levels?
1. osmoreceptors in hypothalamus stimulate posterior pituitary to secrete ADH (vasopressin) to increase water permeability and reabsorption
If urine is dilute, is there a lack of or too much of ADH?
lack of ADH; letting water be excreted instead of absorbed into body
Dehydration occurs because of:
an excess excretion of dilute urine
What would occur if acetycholinesterase were inhibited?
acetylcholine will not be degraded into choline and acetate; the acetylcholine concentration in the synapse will increase since the presynaptic membrane will continue to secrete the same amount of acetylcholine in reponse to incoming action potentials; an increase in postsynaptic depolarization would occur as well
How can one determine the number of genetically unique gametes? (formula)
2 to the "nth" power, where "n" is the number of heterozygous gene pairs that the individual has
T/F: DNA replication consists of each daughter strand containing one parental strand and one new strand
True
What is the order of taxonomy classifications, from most diverse to most simliar?
Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
(KPCOFGS)
Nitrogenous waste in the form of urea, uric acid, or ammonia is produced during the hydrolysis of:
proteins
How is CO2 typically transported in the blood?
in the form of HCO3-