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98 Cards in this Set

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Define:
Apex
- tip of leaf blade.
Define:
Acute apex
- leaf blade tip with an angle of less than 90 degrees.
Define:
Palmate
- compound leaf arrangement - no rachis, leaflets radiate from a common point like the fingers from the palm of your hand.
- leaf venation - veins radiate from a common point (usually from blade base) like the fingers radiate from the palm of your hand.
Define:
Stipules
- small leafy flaps on either side of the bud.
- sometimes fused into a ring.
- can also be woody, spiny, or paperlike.
Define:
Adventitious root
- originates from a stem or leaf tissue.
- i.e. roots that grow out from cuttings of plants.
Define:
Deltoid
- leaf shape that is roughly triangular.
Define:
Axillary bud
- nub of tissue in the axil that gives rise to a leaf, stem, or flower.
Define:
Habit
- refers to the overall appearance or growth form of the plant.
Define:
Caespitose
- densly clumped & matted.
- tufted
Define:
Vine
- woody or herbaceous
- climbing with tendrils.
Define:
Attenuate leaf base
- blade has straight margins leading to petiole
Define:
Internode
- space or distance between nodes.
- space along stem between leaf attachment sites.
Define:
Clasping leaf base
- no petiole, blade attaches directly to stem.
Define:
Primary veins
- veins in the leaf blade that extend from the midrib toward the leaf margin.
Define:
Annual
- herbaceous - underground parts die each year.
Define:
Spatulate
- leaf shape, spoon shaped, relatively straight.
Define:
Fimbriate leaf margin
- blade edge fringed with hairs or hair-like structures.
Define:
Leaf base
- transition point where blade attaches to petiole.
Define:
Obtuse apex
- tip of leaf blade having an angle of more than 90 degrees.
Define:
Midrib veins
- veins in the blade extending from the petiole.
Define:
Attenuate apex
- blade margins leading to tip of blade are relatively straight.
Define:
Basal leaf arrangement
- leaves come off of top of taproot.
Define:
Tuber
- solid, enlarged, horizontal stem.
- i.e. potato.
Define:
Arboreous
- tree like.
Define:
Blade margin
- the outer edges of the leaf blade
Define:
Succulent
- thick, soft, watery leaves or stems.
- i.e. cactus
Define:
Ciliate leaf margin
- hairs on blade edge are closely spaced.
Define:
Glabrous
- smooth leaf surface.
Define:
Acuminate apex
- long concave blade margins taper to a tip.
Define:
Fibrous root(s)
- thin root(s) attached to tap root or comprising entire root system of some plants.
Define:
Leaf veins
- lines of transport and support tissue in the leaf blade.
Define:
Cordate leaf base
- blade is shallowly notched at petiole.
Define:
Fascicled leaf arrangement
- leaves attached to short lateral branches.
Define:
Sagittate
- leaf shape, leaf with two basal lobes, straight inner lobe margins.
Define:
Scapose
- stems with leaves attached directly.
- no petiole connects the leaf to the stem.
Define:
Simple leaf
- single blade connects to each petiole.
Define:
Terminal bud
-nub of tissue at the tip of a stem or branch that gives rise to a leaf, stem, or flower.
Define:
Leaf unit
- a leaf unit is defined by the bud placement, there is typically one leaf for each bud placement.
Define:
Tap root
- thicker central main root that decends vertically.
Define:
Reniform
- leaf shape, kidney shaped, wider than long, notched at the base of the blade.
Define:
Prostrate
- growing very flat or horizontal along the ground, tips DO NOT turn upward.
Define:
Reticulate (net) leaf venation
- veins forn a net-like pattern across the blade.
Define:
Decumbent
-growing flat, trailing, with the tips growing upward.
Define:
Rhizome
- stem that is often underground.
Define:
Palmate leaf vein arrangement
- 3 or more veins diverge from a common point near the base of the blade.
Define:
Dissected leaf
- leaf is deeply lobed or has outline with large jagged edges.
Define:
Petiolule
- stalk of a leaflet in a compound leaf.
Define:
Suffruticose
(suffrutescent)
- woody base, dies back at the top.
Define:
Pinnate
even?
odd?
- leaflets attached like veins of a feather.
- even - attached in pairs.
- odd - attached in an alternating fashion, one on one side of the rachis, then another on the other side of the rachis a little further along.
Define:
Shrub
- multiple woody trunks.
Define:
Herb
- herbaceous - little or no woody tissue.
- soft tissue dies back to ground.
Define:
Tri-pinnate
- pinnate compound leaf structure to the 3rd degree.
- should be illustrated with a line drawing for clarity.
Define:
Stolon
- horizontal stem at or above the ground surface.
Define:
Alternate leaf arrangement
- one leaf originates from one side of the stem, another from the other side of the stem further along the stem.
Define:
Rachis
- continuation of petiole in a compund leaf after the first petiolule.
Define:
Entire leaf
- leaf in one simple outline or mass.
Define:
Node
- position on the stem where the leaf is attached.
Define:
Obovate
- leaf shape, egg shaped, widest near apex, blade length less than 3 times width.
Define:
Bi-pinnate
- pinnate compound leaf structures attached to each petiolule of a compound leaf.
Define:
oblanceolate
- leaf shape, widest at apex and spearhead shaped to blade base.
Define:
Linear
- leaf shape, long and narrow with almost parallel sides.
Define:
Bulb
- thickened, short, vertical stem, leaves arise from stem.
Define:
Ovate
- leaf shape, overall shape is round, widest near petiole
- egg shaped, blade length less than 3 times the width.
Define:
Sinuate leaf margin
- wavy undulating blade edge.
Define:
Pinnate primary leaf vein arrangement
- primary leaf veins extend from midrib of leaf in a ladder-like formation.
Define:
Crenate leaf margin
- blade edge has rounded lobes or teeth.
Define:
Blade
- thin flattened photosynthetic portion of the leaf.
Define:
Lanceolate
- leaf shape widest at the base of the blade and spearhead shaped.
Define:
Petiole
- thin stalk that connects the blade of the leaf to the stem.
Define:
Cauline leaf arrangement
- leaves come off of stem in alternate or opposite arrangement.
Define:
Leaflet
- each blade in a compound leaf.
Define:
Tomentose vestiture
- long wooly hair, interwoven or matted.
Define:
Tree
- one woody trunk.
Define:
Root
- underground portion of plant that provides anchorage or water/nutrient absorption.
Define:
Prostrate habit
- lays down along surface as it grows.
Define:
Hastate
- leaf shape, two basal lobes divege from the petiole.
Define:
Entire leaf margin
- smooth blade edge, no teeth, lobes, or jagged edges.
Define:
Compound leaf
- more than 1 leaflet (blade) on each petiole.
Define:
Ternate compound leaf
- 3 leaflets attached to 1 petiole.
Define:
Truncate leaf base
- blade appears cut off or flat at the petiole.
Define:
Serrate leaf margin
- sharp shallow or distinct lobes or teeth on edge of blade point toward apex.
Define:
Dentate leaf margin
- sharp shallow or distinct lobes or teeth on blade edge point perpendicular to blade margin.
Define:
Acaulescent
- no stem or stem entirely below ground.
Define:
Leaf base
- point of transition where the petiole connects to the blade of the leaf.
Define:
Corm
- solid, enlarged, underground stem with leaves absent.
Define:
Oblique leaf base
- one side of blade attaches to the petiole lower than the other side of the blade.
Define:
Parallel leaf venation
- veins run parallel from petiole to apex.
- veins extend side by side for whole length of blade.
- secondary veins obscure
- characteristic of monocots.
Define:
Punctate
- glabrous (smooth) leaf surface with depressions (Hypericum).
- depressions associated with glands.
Define:
Glaucous
- glabrous (smooth) leaf surface with a waxy coating.
- i.e. tulip
Define:
Pubescent vestiture
- short hairs, NOT interwoven.
Define:
Elliptic
- leaf shape with widest point of blade near the middle of the blade length.
Define:
Erect habit
- grows upright.
Define:
Cordate
- leaf shape that is shallowly notched at the base.
Define:
Perennial
- herbaceous - undergound parts sprout new growth each year.
Define:
Axil
- upper angle of leaf with respect to the stem or branch.
- bud is present in the axil.
Define:
Whorled leaf arrangement
- leaves originate from the stem one at a time in a radial pattern.
Define:
Opposite leaf arrangement
- leaves paired, one leave originates from each side of the stem at the same point along the stem.
Define:
Leaf
- main photosynthetic part of the plant.
- can be simple or complex (made up of smaller leaflets)