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45 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
chromosomes uncoil, new nuclear envolope forms, spindle fibers break down.
in the beginning of meiosis the pair of chromosomes are next to each other then exchange reciprical segments of dna.
crossing over
segment of DNA that transmits info from parent to offspring
the two copies of each chromose are called________
homologous chromosomes
chromosomes go to the center of the cell they are then held in place by the microtubles attached to the kineticore.
chromosomes begin to condense and become visible. Nuclear envelope begins to break down and the spindle fibers become visible.
when a diploid cell has an extra chromosome
collection of chromosomes in an individuals cells.
two chromatids seperate when the centromer splits. each cromatid is now a chromosome move toward opposite poles
when the number of chromosomes is halved in cell division
a trait that exerts its full effect regardless of its allele.
the genetic makeup of an organism
an inheritable change in the chromosomes
a gene whose expression is masked by a dominant allele
the observable characteristics of an organism resulting from the interaction between its genetic makeup and the environment
Name the researcher that worked with x-ray diffraction and discovered the key features of DNA structure (uniform, long, thin, repeats and spiral)
Rosalin Franklin
Name the researchers that discovered DNA sttucture and replication explained, coined "double-helix"
Watson and Crick
Fred Griffith worked with pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains of_________ _________ and mice.
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Rosalind Franklin's research showed that DNA was of ____________ diameter.
Name the four nucleotides in DNA
A, T, C, G (adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine)
Name the Purines
A, G
Name the Pyrimidines
T, C
The DNA backbone is composed of alternating ____________ and _______________ molecules.
sugar, phosphate
DNA replication is known as _______-___________ because 2 molecules are produced each with half old and half new DNA.
What is the function of the enzyme Helicase?
Opens up the DNA strand
What is the function of the enzyme DNA polymerase?
Adds on free nucleotides and proofreads
What is the function of the enzyme DNA ligase?
Seals short strands
The central dogma of molecular biology describes the flow of information:
______________ DNA to DNA
______________ DNA to RNA
______________ RNA to proteins
The central dogma of molecular biology describes the flow of information:
Transcription DNA to RNA
Translation RNA to proteins
Where in the cells does Translation RNA to proteins occur?
What is the function of RNA?
(mRNA) messenger;
(tRNA) transfers a.a;
(rRNA) component of ribosomes
The portion of DNA that is not translated and is a non-coded portion is composed of____________
How many different kinds of amino acids are there in proteins?
Genes sparate independently during Meiosis
Law of Independent assortment
Epistasis is where___________ gene masks the effect of____________at a different location
Epistasis is where ONE gene masks the effect of ANOTHER GENE at a different location.
Failure of chromosomes to seperate during Meiosis is called___________
1 more or 1 less chromosome; monosomy and trisomy
3 or more extra chromosomes (fatal in humana)
An experimental mating of individuals in which the inheritance of two traits is tracked.
dihybrid cross
A general rule in inheritance that individuals have two alleles for each gene and that when gametes form by meiosis, the two alleles separate, and each resulting gamete ends up with only one allele of each gene; also known as Mendel's first law of inheritance.
principle of segregation
With respect to two given genes, the number of recombinant progeny from a mating divided by the total number of progeny. Recombinant progeny carry combinations of alleles different from those in either of the parents as a result of independent assortment of chromosomes or crossing over.
recombination frequency
remaining portions which are spliced together to form final RNA
hybrids that have an appearance in between the phenotypes of the two parents
incomplete dominance
A combination of DNA and protein molecules.
Each chromosome consists of two copies of these before beginning division.
sister chromatids
DNA and RNA nucleotides are joined by covalent bonds between the sugar of one nucleotide and the phosphate of the next. What is this called?
sugar-phosphate backbone