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29 Cards in this Set

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Pancreas exocrine function
digestive enzymes, zymogens
tripsinogen, amylase, nuclease, lipase
Pancreatic endocrine function
insulin and glucagon, somatostatin
Control of exocrine pancreas f-n
Secretin and CCK released by duodenum, vagus nerve stimulates
CCK
cholecystokinin, induces pancreas to release digestive enzymes
Secretin
causes pancreas to secrete bicarbonate and water
Internal anal sphincter
Smooth muscle, involuntary
External anal sphincter
skeletal muscle, voluntary
Digestion of carbohydrates
absorption via cotransport with Na+ and facilitated diffusion, enter capillary bed in villi, transported to liver via hepatic portal vein
Enzymes used in digestion of carbohydrates
pancreatic amylase, salivary amylase, brush border enzymes
Digestion of proteins
same as in carbohydrates
Enzymes used for proteins
stomach - pepsin
pancreas - trypsin, chemotrypsin, carboxypeptidase
brush border enzymes - aminopeptidase, carboxypeptidase, dipeptidase
Absorption of fat
triglycerides broken down by bile and diffuse in intestinal walls by simple diffusion
Digestion of fat
combine with proteins, form chylomicrons, enter lacteals, transported via lymph to systemic circulation (thoracic duct)
Kidney cortex
glomeruli, proximal and distal tubules of nephron, filtering mechanism
Kidney medulla
loops of Henle, collecting duct, collect and concentrate urine
Calyx
canal for urine
Glomerulus
ball of capillaries
Nephron
fuctional unit of kidney
What is not filtered by glomeruli?
plasma proteins
Renin angiotensin mechanism
JG cells -->renin,which acts on angiotensinogen to form angiotensin I--> angiotensinogen II
Angiotensinogen II
Raises BP and stimulates release of aldosterone
Selective reabsorption
occurs in PCT and loop of Henle
Reabsorption in PCT
Na, nutrients, water, cations anions, urea , small proteins
Collecting duct absorbs
water and urea
Descending loop of Henle
countercurrent multiplier, impermeable to solutes, permeable to water
Ascending loop of Henle
Permeable to solutes, impermeable to water
Vasa Recta
countercurrent exchanger, maintains osmotic gradient, delivers blood to cells in area
Dilution of urine
occurs in ascending loop of Henle, can happen as long as ADH is not secreted, created by allowing filtrate to pass to renal pelvis
ADH
inhibits diuresis, water reabsorbed, osmolality of filtrate same as interstitial fluid - concentrated urine