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40 Cards in this Set

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Define Active Transport.
Carrier protein acts as a pump(sodium/potassium) that causes substances to move against concentration gradient. Carries NA outside + K to the inside Energy (ATP) required.
Define Carrier protein.
protein molecule that combines with a specific substance and transports it through the plasma membrane. required for facilitated and active transport.
Define: Channel protein.
Forms a channel to allow a specific molecule or ion to cross the plasma membrane.
Define: Cholesterol.
A steroid that occurs in animal plasma membranes that contributes to plaque development on blood vessel walls.
Define: Plasma Membrane permeability?
The ease or difficulty with which different substances are free to cross the plasma membrane. Water and gas are free to cross; ions and charged molecules need assitance.
Define: Diffusion.
Lipid-soluble compounds, water and gases simply diffuse across the membrane from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration.
Define Osmosis.
Diffusion of water across a differentially permeable membrane from an area of higher concentration of water to an area of lower concentration of water.
Define Endocytosis.
a vesicle is formed at the plasma membrane to bring a substance into the cell. endocytosis includes:phagocytosis and pinocytosis.
Define Exocytosis.
Involves secretion out of the cell.
Define:Facilitated transport.
passive transport of a substance into or out of the cell by a carrier protein assist the movement of a molecule down its concentration gradient. No enery is required.
Define:Fluid Mosiac model of membrance structure.
proteins form a pattern within a bilayer of lipid molecules having a fluid consistency. The proteins are the mosaic portion.
define:Glycolipid
component of cell membranes composed of a hydrophilic head bonded to a hydrophobic lipid tail.
define:Glycoprotein
compound composed of a carbohydrate combined with a protein.
define: integral protein
molecule found embedded in and often spanning the width of the cells plasma membrane. associated with active transport, cell recognition + cell to cell adhesion.
define:periphereal protein
globular protein associated with the inner surface of the cell membrane
Define Active Transport.
Carrier protein acts as a pump(sodium/potassium) that causes substances to move against concentration gradient. Carries NA outside + K to the inside Energy (ATP) required.
Define Carrier protein.
protein molecule that combines with a specific substance and transports in through the plasma membrane. required for facilitated and active transport.
Define: Channel protein.
Forms a channel to allow a specific molecule or ion to cross the plasma membrane.
Define: Cholesterol.
A steroid that occurs in animal plasma membranes that contributes to plaque development on blood vessel walls.
Define: Plasma Membrane permeability?
The ease or difficulty with which different substances are free to cross the plasma membrane. Water and gas are free to cross; ions and charged molecules need assitance.
Define: Diffusion.
Lipid-soluble compounds, water and gases simply diffuse across the membrane from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration.
Define Osmosis.
Diffusion of water across a differentially permeable membrane from an area of higher concentration of water to an area of lower concentration of water.
Define Endocytosis.
a vesicle is formed at the plasma membrane to bring a substance into the cell. endocytosis includes:phagocytosis and pinocytosis.
Define Exocytosis.
Involves secretion out of the cell.
Define:Facilitated transport.
passive transport of a substance into or out of the cell by a carrier protein assist the movement of a molecule down its concentration gradient. No enery is required.
Define:Fluid Mosiac model of membrance structure.
proteins form a pattern within a bilayer of lipid molecules having a fluid consistency. The proteins are the mosaic portion.
define:Glycolipid
component of cell membranes composed of a hydrophilic head bonded to a hydrophobic lipid tail.
define:Glycoprotein
compound composed of a carbohydrate combined with a protein.
define: integral protein
molecule found embedded in and often spanning the width of the cells plasma membrane. associated with active transport, cell recognition + cell to cell adhesion.
define:periphereal protein
globular protein associated with the inner surface of the cell membrane
define:phagocytosis.
taking in of bacteria and or debris by engulfing; cell eating.
define:pinocytosis
taking in of fluid along with dissolved solutes by engulfing; cell drinking.
define: plasmolysis.
shrinking of the cytoplasm contents due to the loss of water. e.g. plant cells placed in hypertonic solution the central vacuole loses water.
define. receptor-mediated endocytosis.
selective uptake of molecules into a cell by binding to a specific receptor.
define sodium-potassium pump.
transport protein in the plasma membrane that moves sodium ions out of and potassium ions into animal cells; important in nerve and muscle cells.
define solute:
substance dissolved in a solvent to form a solution.
define solvent.
fluid, such as water, that dissolves solutes.
define: tonicity
degree to which the concentration of solute vs solvent causes fluids to move into or out of cells.
define: turgo pressure
internal pressure that adds to the strength of a cell and builds up when water moves by osmosis into a cell. the swelling of a plant cell in a hypotonic solution creates turgor pressure.
define: enzymatic proteins.
proteins that catalyes a specific reaction.