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54 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the change in form of an organism resulting from cell differentiation
Cell Differentiation
the change in morphology, physology or function of a cell in relation to its neighboring cells
a hollow ball of cells formed when a zygote undergoes repeated cucles of cell division
a cup-shaped embryo formed as the blastula folds inward
transforms the blastula into a mutlilayered embryo
Homeotic Gene
a gene that conrols the development of a specific adult structure
the uncontrolled growth of cells
an abnormal mass of cells
Benign Tumor
an abnormal but non-threatening cell mass
Malignant Tumor
a cancerous mass of cells
the spread of cancer cells beyond their original site
a malignant tumor that grows in body tissue
a tumor growing in bone or muscle tissue
a tumor in the tissues that form blood cells
a progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs
cancer-causing substances
a gene that induces cancer of other uncontrolled proliferation
oncogene precursor that controls a cell's growth and differentiation
Tumor-Suppressor Gene
a gene that suppresses tumor formation but when mutated causes a loss in cell function resulting in tumor formation
linkage groups
groups of genes, located on the same chromosome, that are usually inherited together
the exchange of genes by reciprocal segments of homologous chromosome during meiosis
a change in DNA
somatic mutation
a mutation that occurs in a body cell
germ-cell mutation
a change in DNA of a sex cell
chromosome mutation
a change in the structure of a chromosome or the loss of an entire chromosome
a mutation in which a segment of DNA breaks off the chromosome
a mutation that occurs when a chromosome piece breaks off and reattaches in reverse orientation
a mutation in which a broken piece of chromosome attaches to a non-homologous chromosome
the change of a single nitroggen base within a codon
frame-shift mutation
a mutation resulting in the misreading of the code during translation because of a change in the reading frame
an environmental factor that damages DNA
Thomas Hunt Morgan
-attended Columbia Unviversity
-he discovered that the chromosome pairs differed in both males and females
sickle-cell anemia
-caused by a point-mutation that substitutes adenine for thymine in a signle DNA codon
-selective-advantage on africa because it provides immunity to malaria
pedigree analysis
shows how traits are inherited by studying the phenotype among members of the same species from one generation to the next
huntington's disease
a human genetic disorder caused by a dominant allele resulting in involuntary movements and eventually death
genetic marker
a trait controlled by multiple genes
single allele traits
a trait controlled by a single allele
polygenic traits
a short section of DNA that indicates the presence of an allele that codes for a trait
the failure of homologous chromosomes to seperate during meoisis or the failure of a sister chromosome to seperate during meoisis
a condition in a diploid cell in which one chromosome of one pair is missing as a result of nondisjunction during meiosis
a chromosome anomaly in which an individual has an extra chromosome in any of the chromosome pairs
downs syndrome
a disorder caused by an extra 21st chromosome and characterized by a number of physical and mental abnormalities
genetic engineering
a form of applied genetics in which scientists directly manipulate genes
restriction enzyme
a protied that recognizes specific sequences in a DNA olecule and cuts it into pieces
clonig vector
a carier used to clone a gene and transfer it from on organism to another
a single ring of extra chromosomal DNA and bacteria
gene clone
an extra copy of a gene
genomic library
a set of thousands of DNA pieces cut by a specific restriction enzyme
recombinant DNA
a DNA segment from at least 2 different organisms
transergenic organism
a host organism that has recieved recombinant DNA
DNA fingerprinting
a pattern of bands made up of specifc fragments from an individuals DNA
gel electrophoresis
a technique used to seperate nucleic acids or protiens by size and gharge
Human Genome Project
a worldwide scientific collaboration to determine the nucleic sequence of the entire human genome
gene therapy
treatment of a genetic disorder by introducing a healthy gene into a cell