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92 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
biology
the study of life
6 characteristics of life
1) grow and develop
2) reproduce
3) composed of cells
4) use energy/have metabolism
5) respond to stimuli
6) have movement
life's heirarchy of organization
1) ecosystem level--all the living and nonliving factors in an area
2) community level==all the living organisms in an area
3) polulation level--all individuals of a species in an area
4) organism level--one individual of a species
5) organ system level--system of organs
6) organ level--one organ in the system
7) tissue level--tissue in organ
8) cellular level--individual cells
9) molecular level--molecules that make up cells
discovery science
verifiable ovservations and measurements, describe life on many levels, physical characterisitics, use senses, behaviors, dissections
hypothesis
tentative statement about the natural world leading to deductions that can be tested
fact
an observation that has been repeated and confirmed and for all practical purposes is accepted as true
law
a descriptive generalization about how some aspect of the natural world behaved under stated circumstances
theory
a well-substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural that incorportates facts, laws, inferences, and tested hypothesis
3 domains of life
1) domain bacteria
2) domain archaea
3) domain eukarya
energy vs chemicals
energy flows, chemicals cycle
species
a population whose members have the potential to interbreed with one another to produce fertile offspring, but who cannot successfully interbreed with members of other species
trophic structure
the feeding relationships among the various species
a) food chain
b) food web
food chain
shows how energy moves through a system, up the chain
herbivores, carnivores, omnivores, detritivores (dead)
food web
network of interconnecting food chains

shows how the energy moves, in the complexity of a real life situation
pollination
how a plant gets its male sperm to the female parts of another plant of the same species (abiotic or biotic)
seed dispersal
how plants get their seeds discpersed so they don't all land below the parent plant (abiotic or biotic)
symbiotic relationships
interactions where one species lives in or on another
a) mutual
b) parasitism
5 most common molecules of life
water, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
4 basic elecments of life
oxygen, carbon, hydrogran, nitrogren
4 common elecments combine to form...
1) water-- O and H
2) four macromolecules...
carbohydrates (O, H, C)
lipids (O, H, C)
proteins (O, H, C, N)
nuleic acids (O,H,C,N, P)
atomic number
# of protons
4 reactive atoms and why
hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen
because their outermost shell is incomplete-- missing electrons
ionic bonds
ions = atoms/molecules with a + or - charge

attractions between ions of opposite charge
covalent bonds
share electrons
form molecules
single bonds or double bonds
% of freshwater
less than 3%-- 3/4 of that is in polar caps and glaciers
4 qualities of water that make it unique and make life possible on earth
1) liquid water is cohesive
2) ice is less dense than liquid water
3) water moderated temperatures
4) water is versatile solvent
liquid water is cohesive
hydrogen bonds cause water molecules to stick together and pull eachother along
surface tension
part of cohesiveness of water

the measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid

hydrogen bonds give water a high surface tension
ice is less dense than liquid water
ice floats

when water freezes, hydrogen bonds form between 100% of the molecules--pushes the molecules apart--making more space between molecules--forms a lattice-like structure

becomes less dense and thus lighter than liquid water

ice--hydrogen bonds are stable
liquid water--hydrogen bonds constantly break and reform
water moderates temperature
water gains and loses heat slowly

the hydrogen bonds must first be broken in order for water to evaporate when heated--water heats up slowly
evaporative cooling of water
the transition of water from a liquid to a gas requires the input of energy to break the many hydrogen bonds
water is a versatile solvent
many things dissolve in water

part of the reason why we are 80% water--so molecules can get where they need to be
carbon
four unfilled spaces in outer electron shell

can build chains--forms the backbone for the molecules needed for life
hydrocarbons
the most simple carbon molecules

carbon and hydrogen only

we use for fuels--store tremendous amounts of energy--release this energy when broken (much as heat or fire)
polymers
molecules built by linking together a large number of subunits
monomers
subunits linked together to build molecules called polymers
dehydration synthesis
polymers are made from monomers using this process

water is removed in the process
hydrolysis
monomers are broken off of polymers using this process

water is added in the process
carbohydrates
a class of molecules randing from small sugars to large polysaccharides

molecules made up of C, H, O

fuel for our bodies
monosaccharides
carbohydrate

single sugar unites--monomers

glucose, fructose
glucose
what plants make during photosynthesis
disaccharide
two sugar monomers joined by dehydration sunthesis

sucrose, maltose, lactose
sucrose
glucose and fructose

table sugar
maltose
two glucose

germinating seeds and making beer
lactose
glucose and galactose

sugar found in milk
polysaccharides
polymers of a few hundred to a few thousand monosaccharides long

starch, glycogen, cellulose
starch
a storage polysaccharide in plant rootsa nd seeds, consisting entirely of glucose monomers
glycogen
branched chains of glucose where animals and humans sotre excess sugars
cellulose
the cable like fibers in the tough walls that enclose plant cell--the major component of wood
lipids
diverse compounds that consist mainly of C and H

nonpolar (few or no O atoms)

hydrophobic

fats, oils
triglyceride
three fatty acids linked to glycerol--another name for fat

main function of fats in energy storage-- a gram of fat sotres more than twice as much energy as a gram of polysaccharides such as starch
saturated fat
fatty acid with the maximum number of hydrogens on the carbon chain
unsaturated fat
fatty acid with less than the maximum number of hydrogens on the carbon chain
can pack tightly together... solid at room temp...
saturated fats
cannot pack tightly... liquid at room temp
polyunsaturated fats
kinks in unsaturated fat
prevents the molecules from packing tightly together and solidifying at room temp
prokaryotic cell
single cells, no nucleus, 10x smaller than eukaryotic cells, bacterial cell wall

basteria and archaea
eukaryotic cells
part of multi-cellular organisms, nucleus, 10x larger than prokaryotic cells, organelles

protists, plants, fungi, animals
prokaryotic nucleoid region
where dna is found
prokaryotic ribosomes
organelles that make proteins
prokaryotic plasma membrane
outside membrane of cell
prokaryotic bacterial cell wall
wall outside the plasma membrane
prokaryotic capsule
sticky compound outside of cell wall, aids in adhering and hiding from immune system

some
prokaryotic pili
hair like extensions, aids in adhering

some
prokaryotic flagella
tail like extenion with ship like action for movement

some
sukarotic animal nucleus
dna
eukaroytic animal plasma membrane
membrane on outside of cell, regulates traffic in and out of cell
eukaryotic animal cytoplasm
fluid filled space within cell
eukaryotic aminal organelles
rough er, smooth er, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, mitochondria
eukaryotic plant cell wall
made of cellulose
eukaryotic plant central vaculoe
filled with water for support and storage
eukaryotic plant chloroplastsw
where photosynthesis takes place
nucleus
info center of the cell

dna chromosomes

condensed only before or after cell division

uncondensed when it is in its normal active state, coordinating cell work and activity
nuclear pores
controls the movement of materials in and out of nucleus
how genes in the nucleus control the cell...
1) dna opens at a particular gener... mrna is synthesized from dna
2) mrna moves out of the nucleus into the cytoplasm or rough er
3) synthesis of protein occurs at the ribosomes--mrna attaches to a ribosome--mrna carries the code that tells the ribosome which amino acids to add to make the protein
rough er
rough because ribosomes stud the membranes
ribosomes synthesize proteins
smooth er
synthesize lipids
breaks down glycogen to glucose

detoxification of drugs or poisons
transport vesicles
vesicles are membrane-bound sacs

bud off from rough er

transportation system within cell-- carry proteins to other organelles, secrete them outside of cell
golgi apparatus
modifies products of er, stores products until needed, distributes products using transport vesicles
lysosomes
vesicles which carry digestive enzymes that breakdown food, recycle molecules by breaking down worn out or damaged organelles or other objects, programmed destruction of cells
vaculoes
membrane-bound sacs

stores water and other substances

overfills with water to give plants support
chloroplasts
plant cells only

membrane-bound sacs where photosynthesis takes place--converts solar energy into chemical energy in the bonds of sugar molecules
mitochondria
energy centers of the cell
cellular respiration
process of harvesting energy from carbs, fats, and other foods and converting that energy into atp
atp
carrier of small untis of energy which power everything in the cell
selective permeability
plasma membrane

it allows some substances to pass through more easily than others
phospholipids
membranes are made up of a double layer of phospholipids

hydrophobic

in water, spontaneously form a stable, two-layer sheet called a phospholipid bilayer-- heads face outward toward water while tails point inward, toward the tails of other phospholipids, shielded from the water
passive transport
does not require energy

IE some small molecules can pass thru but not larger molecules and most molecules with a charge
active transport
requires energy

IE larger molecules and those with a charge need assistance to move across the membrane

energy (usually atp) required

transport protein--which only recognize a particular solute

less to more concentration (against the concentration gradient)
diffusion
passive transport

the tendency for molecules to spread out into the available space

from higher to lower concentration until it reaches equilibrium
osmosis
passive transport

the transport of water across a selectively permeasble membrane

high to low concentration movement
facilitated diffusion
passive transport

certain small molecules, too large to pass thru the membrane, are assisted across thru transport proteins

higheer to lower concentration