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49 Cards in this Set

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Who is Charles Darwin?
The father of evolution
What are the four main ideas to Darwin's Theory of Evolution (Natural Selection)?
1. Variation within population
2. Some variations allow an organism a better chance of survival
3. More born than expected to survive.
4. Individuals that survive and reproduce pass their traits to the next generation.
What is an adaptation? Give Example.
Evolution of a structural behavior or internal process that enables an organism to respond to environmental factors and live to produce offspring.

Example: if food supply becomes low, animals will start to eat a different food.
Lamarck proposed 3 ideas in his theory on evolution? What are they?
1. constantly improving
2. structure not used disappear
3. acquired traits are passed on
Briefly describe th following an draw a simple example?

Vestigial Structure
Inherited but unused


appendix
Briefly describe the following and draw a simple example?

homologous structure
similar structure / different function
Briefly describe the following and draw a simple example?

analogous structure
different structure / similar function.
Helps an organism to blend in to their surroundings for protection.
camouflage
An adaptation of an organism that copies a characteristic of another organisms that provides protection.
mimicry
A butterfly that has dots on its lower wings to give the appearance of a larger animal.
mimicry
A walking stick that looks like a tree branch and blends into the tree
BOTH - Camouflage and mimicry
A frog that is not well seen due to the coloration of its skin.
Camouflage
According to the Hardy-Weinburg principle, what must happen to insure genetic equilibrium?
No natural selection
Random mating
No Migration
No Mutation
A population of organisms that interbreed and can produce offspring with the ability to reproduce
species
A process of change over time
evolution
Difference that exist among individuals in the same population
variation
A hypothesis that is supported by evidence
theory
One girl has brown hair and blue eyes, and the other one has red hair and brown eyes.
variation
A group of tigers have 6 new cubs
species
The horse species changes from having 4 toes to a hoove
evolution
Darwin forms an idea based on all the data he has collected.
theory
What is the difference between psysiological adaptations and Anatomical adaptations?
Physiological - internal change (metabolic process)

Anatomical - Structure of an organism
What is it called when a scientist looks at the early stages of development in different species to try and determine if the species were from a common ancestor?
embryology
Biochemistry is the study of a living organisms chemistry or chemicals contained in their bodies. What are they looking for and what can be determined by comparing those chemicals?
If biochemically similiar - fewer differences in amino acid square.

More similarities = more closely related.
What are the two types of speciation? Give an example of both.

What is speciation? Two Types:
1. Geographis isolation
Frogs seperated by a river
As a rose bush evolved, it started to produce thorns to protect itself from getting eaten by animals. This is an example of a(n)?
Adaptation
True or False

Individual evolve.
Answer: False


Correct Answer: Populations evolve
The alteration of allelic frequencies by chance events
genetic drift
All the alleles of a population's genes come together to form this.
gene pool
How often particular alleles show up in a population.
allelic frequencies
When the alleles of a population remain the same generation after generation.
genetic equilibrium
The small population of Amish people that show changes in their population faster that larger population.
genetic drift
Brown hair shows up in every 1 out of 6 people.
allelic frequency
Can occur only when either interbreeding or the production of fertile offspring is prevented among members of a population
speciation
Occurs when formerly interbreeding organisms are prevented form producing fertile offspring.
reproductive isolation
Polyploid speciation is perhaps the fastest form of speciation because it results in immediate
reproductive isolation
The hypothesis is supported by evidence from the _________ record.
fossil
The hypothesis of _________________ states that speciation may occur rapidly.
punctuated equilibrium
_______ is a technique in which the breeder selects particular traits.
artificial selection
A structural adaptation enabling an organism to blend in with its
camouflage
Another structural adaptation call ____________ protects an organism by copying the appearance of another species.
mimicry
The total number of genes present in a population is the
gene pool
The __________ is the percentage of a particular allele in a population.
allelic frequency
The alteration of allelic frequencies by chance events is known as
genetic drift
_______ is the type of selection that favors average individuals in a population.
stabilizing selection
______ is a mechanism for change in a population in which organisms with favorable variations live, reproduce, and pass on their favorable traits.
natural selection
The concept that speciation occurs relatively quickly with long periods of stability in between is known as
punctuated equilibrium
Any structure that no longer serves its original function in a living organism but may have been used in an ancestor is known as a(n)
vestigial structure
The evolution of an ancestral species into an array of species that occupy different niches is called
adaptive radiation