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31 Cards in this Set

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Adenosine triphophate(ATP)
one principal chemical compounds that living use to store enrgy
photosynthesis
process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to power chemical reactions that convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches
pigment
light absorbing colored molecule
chlorophyll
principal pigment of plants and other photosynthetic organisms; captures light energy
thylakoid
saclike body in chloroplasts amde of photosynthetic membrans that contain photosystems
stroma
region outside the thylakoid membranes in chloroplast
light-dependant reactions
reactions of photosynthesis that use energy from light to produce ATP and NADPH
Calvin Cycle
reactions of photosynthesis in which energy from ATP and NADPH is used to build high-energy compounds such as sugar
autotroph
organism that can make its own food
heterotroph
organism that gets its food from other living organisms
lipid bylayer
double-layered sheet of lipids that form most cell membranes
concentration
the mass of solute in a given volume of solution, or mass/volume
diffusion
process by which molecules tend to move from and area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated
High---> low
selective permeability
allows only certain substances to pass through them
osmosis
diffusion of water through a selective permeable membrane
facilitated diffusion
movement of molecules across cell membranes through protiens channels
active transport
energy-requiring process that moves materials across a cell membrane against a concentration difference
endocytosis
process by which a cell takes material into the cell by infolding of the cell membrane
phagocytosis
process in which extensions on cytoplasm surround and engulf large particles and take them into the cell
exocytosis
process by which the cell releases large amounts of material
cell specialization
seperate roles for each type of cell in multicellular organisms
tissue
group of similar cells that form a particular function
organ
group of tissues that work together to form closely related functions
organ system
group of organs that work together to perform a specific function
cell
basic unit of all forms of life
prokaryote
single-celled multiorganism who lacks a nucleus
eukaryote
organism whose cell contains a nuclei
organelle
specialized structure that performs important cellular functions within a eukaryote cell
chromatin
granular material within the nucleus; consists of DNA tightly coiled around proteins
chromosome
threadlike structure within the nucleus containing genetic information that is passed from one generation of cells to the next
cytoskeleton
network of protein filaments within some cells that helps the cell maintain its shape and is involved in many forms of cell movement