Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

41 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Central nervous system
brain and spinal cord
receives, integrates and coordinates sensory data
issues motor commands
site of higher functions
Afferent division
part of peripheral nervous system that handles incoming sensory information
efferent division
part of peripheral nervous system that carries signals to muscles and glands
somatic nervous system
part of efferent division
voluntary control over skeletal muscle
autonomic nervous system
part of efferent division
involuntary control over smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and glands
sympathetic division - fight or flight
parasympathetic division - rest and digest
sensory neurons
relay touch, temp, pressure, sensation, sight, smell, sound, and taste; also perceive state of muscular, digestive, respiratory and urinary systems
motor neurons
carry commands from CNS to effectors
located in the brain and spinal cord to interconnect other neurons
analyze sensory input and coordinate output
anatomy of a neuron
cell body contains organelles
dendrites receive signals
axon - single extension that carries signal from cell body
synaptic terminals - axon endpoint that interfaces with other neurons
nervous system helper cells
ingest foreign molecules
cover blood vessels in brain
myelin sheath around axons in CNS
PNS sheath formed by Schwann cells
myelin is white matter
gray matter contains mostly cell bodies but has tracts of white matter
site of higher thinking
communicates through 12 pairs of cranial nerves
cerebral cortex
outer layer of brain
site of conscious thought and intellectual functions
memory storage, complex motor patterns, visual and olfactory cortex
prefrontal lobe
helps prioritize behavior
left and right hemispheres
long term memory
regulates ongoing movement based on current sensory input and stored motor memory, adjusts postural muscle, maintains balance and reproduces learned movements
located at top of brain stem
info processing and relay center
controls several autonomic functions
located below thalamus
involved in emotion, autonomic function and hormone production
pituitary gland
connected to hypothalamus by and narrow stalk, connected to nervous system by hypothalamus
master gland in endocrine system
involved in growth
located below hypothalamus at top of brain stem
processes sight and hearing
generates involuntary motor responses
controls muscle tone, posture and consciousness
bridge between brain structures
control of breathing
medulla oblongata
connects spinal cord to brain
bottom of brain stem
controls autonomic functions heart rate, blood pressure, respiration and digestion
parietal lobe
interprets sensory information
occipital lobe
handles basic visual input
temporal lobe
handles hearing and advanced visual processing
corpus collosum
axons that link hemispheres
auditory tube
connects middle ear with pharynx, stabilizes air pressure
how are balance and equilibrium maintained
nerve receptors in the inner ear detect rotational head movement and relay to the brain
clear window allows light and refracts it to retina
white of eye protects and shapes the eye and anchors the eye muscles
anterior chamber
chamber at front of eye contains aqueous humor
controls shape of cornea to focus
ciliary body
ring of tissue around the lens with muscle to control its shape
colored part of eye regulates incoming light with 2 smooth muscles that control the pupil
transforms light to nervous system signals
vitreous humor
clear gel at back of eye transmits light and supports the back of the lens; formed in embryonic stage and lasts for life
dark brown membrane that absorbs light, prevents light from scattering in eye
optic nerve
sends visual information to the thalamus
pinpoint opening contains cones
black and white photoreceptors that operate best in low light
color receptors that work in bright light